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(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.



in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.




References in periodicals archive ?
Unlike the clear cut hierarchies developed for certain anxiety disorders described in last month's column, with assertiveness training, I believe, more dialogue and patient involvement are very important and necessary.
Although there'sno knowncurefor the condition, the programme teaches breathing techniquestohelp sufferers control theirspeech, aswell as assertiveness training.
Because assertiveness training is a popular strategy currently promoted to deal with workplace violence (e.
The third example of the imitation focus is the wave of assertiveness training for women that began in the early 1970s.
Interventions such as relaxation techniques, stress reduction and distraction, conflict management, and assertiveness training help to alleviate back pain in direct care patient caregivers.
In a nutshell: Assertiveness training course for wimpy guys turns ugly, but not enough to be as funny or wicked as it should be.
Miss Green, 36, of Manchester Road, Tower Hamlets, east London, was twice promoted before she received stress counselling, paid for by the company, in March 2000, and assertiveness training.
In addition, funds will be used to provide assertiveness training sessions for bullied children, which will help them regain their self-confidence and teach them about non-threatening ways of tackling bullying.
Everything from computer skills to English, maths, first aid, food hygiene, counselling and assertiveness training has been studied at Valley House, in Bell Green Road, Coventry.
Interpersonally focused cognitive behavioral interventions, such as assertiveness training, couples and family interventions, and social skills training may be helpful in addressing relational and social issues in work-related amputation.
Individual and group counseling strategies should be implemented to assist students with self-mutilation along with the accompanying issues of self-esteem, grief, loss, divorce, assertiveness training, and anger.
The program also employs assertiveness training so that individuals speak up and state information persistently until the problem, a proposed action, and a decision are understood by all parties.