atomization


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atomization

[‚ad·ə·mə′zā·shən]
(analytical chemistry)
In flame spectrometry, conversion of a volatilized sample into free atoms.
(chemistry)
A process in which the chemical bonds in a molecule are broken to yield separated (free) atoms.
(mechanical engineering)
The mechanical subdivision of a bulk liquid or meltable solid, such as certain metals, to produce drops, which vary in diameter depending on the process from under 10 to over 1000 micrometers.

Atomization

The process whereby a bulk liquid is transformed into a multiplicity of small drops. This transformation, often called primary atomization, proceeds through the formation of disturbances on the surface of the bulk liquid, followed by their amplification due to energy and momentum transfer from the surrounding gas.

Spray formation processes are critical to the performance of a number of technologies and applications. These include combustion systems (gas turbine engines, internal combustion engines, incinerators, furnaces, rocket motors), agriculture (pesticide and fertilizer treatments), paints and coatings (furniture, automobiles), consumer products (cleaners, personal care products), fire suppression systems, spray cooling (materials processing, computer chip cooling), medicinal (pharmaceutical), and spray drying (foods, drugs, materials processing). Current concerns include how to make smaller drops (especially for internal combustion engines), how to make larger drops (agricultural sprays), how to reduce the number of largest and smallest drops (paints and coatings, consumer products, medicinals, spray drying), how to distribute the liquid mass more uniformly throughout the spray, and how to increase the fraction of liquid that impacts a target (paints and coatings, spray cooling, fire suppression).

Spray devices (that is, atomizers) are often characterized by how disturbances form. The most general distinction is between systems where one or two fluids flow through the atomizer. The most common types of single‐fluid atomizers are pressure (also called plain‐orifice, hydraulic, or pneumatic), pressure‐swirl, rotary, ultrasonic (sometimes termed whistle or acoustic), and electrostatic. Twin‐fluid atomizers include internal‐mix and external‐mix versions, where these terms describe the location where atomizing fluid (almost always a gas) first contacts fluid to be sprayed (almost always a liquid).

While primary atomization is important, because of its role in determining mean drop size and the spectrum of drop sizes, subsequent processes also play key roles in spray behavior. They include further drop breakup (termed secondary atomization), drop transport to and impact on a target, drop evaporation (and perhaps combustion), plus drop collisions and coalescence. In addition, the spray interacts with its surroundings, being modified by the adjacent gas flow and modifying it in turn. See Particulates

atomization

The formation of tiny droplets or a very fine spray, as produced by impinging jets of air on a small stream of paint in spray painting.
References in periodicals archive ?
The influence of the split crankcase, atomization nozzle and pressure and temperature sensors on the compressor performance has been evaluated by comparing the refrigerant mass flow rate of the modified compressor prototype, but without oil atomization, with that of a compressor without any modification.
In preparation and utilization of the above-mentioned polymer solutions, it is important to start atomization immediately after completion of mixing.
Causes can be too much air for atomization, the fan pattern is too wide, or the coating's surface tension is too high.
The objective was to determine the flow characteristics of the gas inside the nozzle and flow area and compute the temperature of gas and molten metal for atomization at the nozzle exit and their pre-heating requirement to prevent the chilling effect along with the heat transfer analysis.
Atomization of Impinging Liquid Jets in a Supersonic Crossflow, AIAA J.
1] Beyvel L & Orzechowski Z (1993), Liquid Atomization, Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, PA
The atomization chamber is where the vapor-like smoke is created, a result of the nicotine dilution, which is found in the cartridge, heating up or atomizing.
As far as the spray generation method is concerned, four methods have been tried: 1) atomization with compressed air (Marian 1958; Burrows 1961; Carroll and McVey 1962; Lehmann 1965, 1968; Maloney 1970; Kasper and Chow 1980; Kamke et al.
Although the application of coatings by spray has been practiced for some time, the process is still not well understood because of the complexity of the atomization process, differences in the design, size, and operating conditions of the nozzles, and variations in the fluid's properties.
The new Spraytec has an increased data acquisition rate of 10 kHz, allowing extremely accurate analysis of the dynamics of spray atomization and dispersion.
2 hp) models have the injection nozzle set at a larger angle than usual to make atomization and mixing even more consistent.
When fuel enters the combustion chambers, the fuel injector creates a fine and wide mist of fuel; this is known as atomization of the fuel.