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establishing the authors of anonymous and pseudonymous scholarly and artistic works or the time and place of their creation (such as, their artistic schools and countries).

In art scholarship attribution is based, for the most part, on an analysis of the stylistic and technical characteristics of the work (the material, the composition, the artist’s individual manner, and so on). In attribution a large role is played by the discovery of the purpose and subject of the work, by using historical and cultural data, archives, and literary sources. In the past attribution was based solely on the empirical knowledge and intuitive conclusions of experts. Since the end of the 19th century attribution has also been based on scientific stylistic analysis and the results of chemical and physical investigations (photomacrography and microphotography, roentgenography, the use of infrared and ultraviolet rays, and so on).

In literary scholarship attribution is one of the oldest problems of textual study (for example, the so-called Homeric problem, which dates back to the ancient period). Attribution is important, for example, in the study of Old Russian literature. This is so because until the 17th century manuscript works were, as a rule, anonymous and were often multilayered compilations. The work of attribution is carried out in three basic areas: the search for documentary and factual proof, the discovery of the ideological and imagina! content of the text, and an analysis of the language and style.


Friedländer, M. Znatok iskusstva. Edited by B. Vipper. Moscow, 1923. (A translation.)
Restavratsiia i issledovanie khudozhestvennykh pamiatnikov. Moscow, 1955. (A collection.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Consequential and attributional approaches to LCA: A guide to policy makers with specific reference to greenhouse gas LCA of biofuels.
The interaction between various systems of belief imprints this question is in the minds of researchers that how religious beliefs and attributional style as components of belief systems contribute to the prediction of depression?
The AACDM (Luzzo & Jenkins-Smith, 1998) was used to measure participants' attributional style toward making career decisions.
suggest beliefs about the causes of an outcome, which are termed attributional beliefs.
Some Methodological Pitfalls in Attributional Research," Journal of Educational Psychology, (75:4), 1983, pp.
Negative results make people anxious and depressed, especially unexpected negative outcomes are more surprising and salient, and tend to trigger attributional processes.
Aggressive children have been shown to have a hostile attributional bias, as they tend to excessively infer that others are acting toward them in a provocative and hostile manner (Katsurada & Sugawara, 1998; Lochman & Dodge, 1994, 1998).
Unemployment and its psychological correlates: A study of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, Protestant values, attributional style and apathy.
Assessment involved a semistructured interview for the parents, and administration of several questionnaires to the children to determine their attributional style, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire, and the Children's Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire, and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire.
Indeed Juvonen and Murdock (1993) presented evidence that adolescents employ differential attributional self-presentational strategies concerning their academic success or failure to adults and peers.
The problems in finding ex-entrepreneurs for research necessitated the use of college students to extend the theory of attributional explanatory style to perceived outcomes after entrepreneurial failure.