Endoscopy

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Endoscopy

 

examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.

REFERENCES

Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.

V. I. FEDCHENKO

References in periodicals archive ?
Surveillance of Barrett's esophagus with autofluorescence endoscopy performed with a videoendoscope, rather than a fiberoptic endoscope, may enhance detection of dysplasia or early cancer, reported Mohammed A.
In a randomized, crossover study of 47 patients, autofluorescence endoscopy with a fiberoptic endoscope had the same sensitivity in detecting high-grade dysplasia or early cancer (62%) as did standard white-light videoendoscopy.
Kara and his associates improved autofluorescence endoscopy by using a videoendoscope that incorporates information from reflected light and displays dysplastic or neoplastic lesions as blue or violet and nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus as green.