training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Autogenic training, a healing modality developed by a psychiatrist in the last century (and further perfected by many other clinicians over the decades; Luthe 1969), offers a process of self-development leading to improvements similar to those achieved via hypnosis and meditation.
RELAXATION INTERVENTION BART involved a series of relaxation training sessions where the students learned diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training.
Recent advance of autogenic training in clinical practice of psychosomatic medicine in Japan.
There has been a wealth of research into autogenics, much of which also refers to Biofeedback - a system created out of autogenic training methods incorporating the use of electrical equipment designed to monitor stress levels through respiration rates, skin temperature and blood flow.
90) Furthermore, analysis revealed that the majority of subjects reported "never" using autohypnosis, autogenic training, blank meditation, bracing, color, cue words, mantra meditation, and Transcendental Meditation(C) for performance enhancement.
Dr Einhardt Illing is a psychiatrist who uses physical exercise therapies, including autogenic training, (self-,)hypnosis, yoga and Qi Gong, to bring about mental and psychological changes.
Cognitive approaches are self-awareness, imagery, goal-directed visualisation, autogenic training, meditation, Benson's method and cognitive behavioural methods.
There is a very wide range of complementary treatments based on Eastern philosophy, such as acupressure, acupuncture, aromatherapy, autogenic training, biorhythms, massage, meditation, neuro-linguistic programming, reflexology, reiki healing, shiatsu, yoga (Chris-UK, 2005).
In BFRT, biofeedback is usually augmented with relaxation techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation training, autogenic training, guided imagery, and meditation.
There are two simple ways of achieving this inner peace - Autogenic Training and visualisation - which, if you start practising them today, will enable you to keep your blood pressure down.