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(1) A handwritten inscription or signature.
(2) A handwritten author’s manuscript. Autographs form an important source for establishing the canonical (recognized as authentic) text of a work and are valuable material for studying the creative process of writers, scholars, and historical figures. The collection and custody of autographs is one of the functions of archives, libraries, and museums. In the USSR, manuscripts by K. Marx, F. Engels, V. I. Lenin, and several leaders of the CPSU are kept at the Central Party Archive of the CPSU Central Committee’s Institute of Marxism-Leninism. There are large collections of writers’ autographs at the V. I. Lenin State Library of the USSR and the State Literature Museum in Moscow, at the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library and the Institute of Russian Literature of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Pushkin House) in Leningrad, and in many memorial museums.