automotive suspension

automotive suspension

[¦ȯd·ə¦mōd·iv səs′pen·chən]
(mechanical engineering)
The springs and related parts intermediate between the wheels and frame of an automotive vehicle that support the frame on the wheels and absorb road shock caused by passage of the wheels over irregularities.

Automotive suspension

The springs and related parts intermediate between the wheels and the frame, subframe, or side rails of a unitized body. The suspension supports the weight of the upper part of a vehicle on its axles and wheels, allows the vehicle to travel over irregular surfaces with a minimum of up-and-down body movement, and allows the vehicle to corner with minimum roll or loss of traction between the tires and the road. See Automobile, Spring (machines)

In a typical suspension system for a vehicle with front-engine and front-wheel drive (see illustration), the weight of the vehicle applies an initial compression to the coil springs. When the tires and wheels encounter irregularities in the road, the springs further compress or expand to absorb most of the shock. The suspension at the rear wheels is usually simpler than for the front wheels, which require multiple-point attachments so the wheels can move up and down while swinging from side to side for steering.

Front-wheel-drive car with MacPherson-strut front suspension and strut-type independent rear suspensionenlarge picture
Front-wheel-drive car with MacPherson-strut front suspension and strut-type independent rear suspension

A telescoping hydraulic damper, known as a shock absorber, is mounted separately or in the strut at each wheel to restrain spring movement and prevent prolonged spring oscillations. The shock absorber contains a piston that moves in a cylinder as the wheel moves up and down with respect to the vehicle body or frame. As the piston moves, it forces a fluid through an orifice, imposing a restraint on the spring. Spring-loaded valves open to permit quicker flow of the fluid if fluid pressure rises high enough, as it may when rapid wheel movements take place. Most automotive vehicles use gas-filled shock absorbers in which the air space above the fluid is filled with a pressurized gas such as nitrogen. The gas pressure on the fluid reduces the creation of air bubbles and foaming.

Most automotive vehicles have independent front suspension, usually using coil springs as part of either a short-arm long-arm or a MacPherson-strut suspension system. A MacPherson-strut suspension (see illustration) combines a coil spring and shock absorber into a strut assembly that requires only a beam-type lower control arm.

Some vehicles with short-arm long-arm front suspension use either longitudinal or transverse torsion bars for the front springs. One end of the torsion bar is attached to the lower control arm, and the other end is anchored to the vehicle body or frame. As the tire and wheel move up and down, the torsion bar provides springing action by twisting about its long axis. Turning an adjustment bolt at one end of the torsion bar raises or lowers the vehicle ride height.

Most automobiles and many light trucks have coil springs at the rear. These may mount on the rear drive axle, on struts, or on various types of control or suspension arms in an independent suspension system. Some rear-drive vehicles have leaf springs at the rear. Others use transverse torsion bars.

References in periodicals archive ?
The report also provides a comprehensive review of market drivers, restraints, opportunities, challenges, and key issues in the global automotive suspension system market.
The market report defines and segments the Automotive Suspension Systems Market with analysis and projection of the market size in terms of volume and value.
Hayes Montague receives this recognition for its vacuum riserless casting/pressure riserless casting (VRC/ PRC) process for the production of automotive suspension components (crossmembers, control arms and steering knuckles).
UHS 1900 is a wire rod product used in automotive suspension springs, and designed to ensure a smoother ride and protect vehicles from impact damage.
These have a long history of successful use in automotive suspension systems where good fatigue life is essential.
Potential uses for coated PTFE range from rubber composites for automotive suspension and drive belts to high-speed electronic materials for communications.
USER--Hayes Lemmerz, Montague Operations, Montague, Michigan is a foundry specializing in aluminum automotive suspension components.
Examples are motor mounts, shoe soles, tires and automotive suspension bushings.
Tenneco (NYSE:TEN) has been awarded the prestigious 'Supplier of the Year' award from Vehicle Dynamics International magazine, which recognizes outstanding achievement in global automotive suspension and chassis engineering.
Leveraging its prior research into automotive suspension systems, Bose began research on trucking applications in 1994.
com/research/rrcgcz/global_automotive) has announced the addition of the "Global Automotive Suspension Systems Market 2014-2018" report to their offering.
While a number of commercial applications exist for 206 aluminum alloy, an automotive suspension component was chosen to demonstrate its potential.

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