When autophagy is induced, beclin-1 and LC3-II are distributed to the membrane of autophagosomes
, thus determining the extent of autophagosome
formation (Kelekar 2005).
Autophagy, as a dynamic process, might be divided into few stages including (i) induction of the process, (ii) autophagosome
formation, (iii) autophagolysosome formation, and (iv) delivery and degradation of the autophagic body.
Autophagy is an intracellular process by which eukaryotic cells degrade damaged organelles, macromolecular components, and even invading microbes through the formation of a double-membrane autophagosome
that fuses with the lysosome for digestion of its content.
Many core factors required for autophagosome
formation have been identified but the order in which they act and their mode of action is still unclear.
sup] LC3-II is the activated form of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 LC3), which maintains the stability of autophagosome
by inserting into the extending autophagosome
Results: Autophagy induction was demonstrated by examination of autophagic flux including autophagosomes
-lysosome fusion and degradation of autophagosomes
Accordingly, the protein levels of beclin-1 and LC3-II that contribute to autophagosome
formation and maturation [30, 44, 45] were 5.
Results of TEM showed that some myelin structures were arranged in concentric rings in the cytoplasma of both SMCs adjacent to the ECs layer and macrophages infiltrated in plaques, which were autophagosome
and composed of double membrane wrapped non-lysosomal membranous cellular components (e.
By integrating all findings (molecular mechanism of antigen delivery at steady-state and in viral infection, manipulation of the host machinery by M2, role of autophagy in viral immunogenicity) I will gain a broad overview of the regulation of autophagosome
fusion in health and disease.
Finally, the autophagosome
fuses with lysosomes and its content is being degraded (Figure 3).
CQ inhibits the late states of autophagic flux by changing lysosomes pH and affects the degradation of proteins wrapped in the autophagosome
, leading to the inhibition of LC3B-II degradation.
Other studies have shown that NOS overexpression suppresses autophagosome