stimulus

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stimulus

1. any drug, agent, electrical impulse, or other factor able to cause a response in an organism
2. an object or event that is apprehended by the senses
3. Med a former name for stimulant

Stimulus

 

something that excites to action and motivates behavior. The concept of stimulus is characteristic primarily of those trends in psychology that base behavior analysis on the stimulus-response correlation (classical psychophysics and especially behaviorism, as well as neobehaviorism). The term “stimulus” is also retained in some psychological concepts that in essence supersede the stimulus-response correlation. Thus, for example, in the Würzburg school, a task or an awareness of a goal is considered to be a stimulus. In this case, the term “stimulus” is almost metaphorical. Even further from the term’s original meaning is the treatment it receives in the cultural and historical conceptions of L. S. Vygotskii, who established a functional difference between stimulus objects, at which action is directed, and stimulus means, by which action is accomplished. According to Vygotskii, signs serve as stimulus means.

In sociopsychological studies a distinction is sometimes made between motives as internal excitations and stimuli as external excitations to action (see Chelovek i ego rabota [collection], 1967, pp. 38–39).

V. I. MAKSIMENKO

stimulus

[′stim·yə·ləs]
(control systems)
A signal that affects the controlled variable in a control system.
(physiology)
An agent that produces a temporary change in physiological activity in an organism or in any of its parts.
References in periodicals archive ?
When the tone was used as an aversive stimulus, it had a fixed intensity of 105 dB (A).
With DE functions, restraint may or may not produce extinction effects during its implementation, depending on whether the antecedent aversive stimulus condition is terminated by the restraint.
As one example, the onset of an aversive stimulus (e.
Automatic negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior terminates an aversive stimulus directly and the behavior is strengthened.
In phase two of the experiment subjects believed that both their own and the confederate's exposure to an aversive stimulus would be contingent upon rapid responses on a complex task.
B1 is the direct aversive stimulus and B2 is the direct pleasant stimulus.
In a CC&D program, you present the aversive stimulus (another dog) while rapid-fire feeding high-value treats to the subject dog in an effort to change her association with the other dog.
Second, it is likely that exposure to the trained aversive stimulus may attenuate the aversive functions of other stimuli in the relational network.
The hope is that the pairing of the undesirable stimulus with the aversive stimulus creates an avoidance response to the undesirable stimulus (Cautela, 1967).
If you're doing counter-conditioning, reduce the intensity of the aversive stimulus to a level where he'll notice the stressor but still take treats.
Positive punishment involves the application of an aversive stimulus, after an undesirable behavior, that results in the reduction of the probability of recurrence of that behavior.
Acceptance can be promoted by directly targeting the function of an aversive stimulus (the Sd).