stimulus

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Related to aversive stimulus: aversive behavior, escape conditioning, Conditioned taste aversion

stimulus

1. any drug, agent, electrical impulse, or other factor able to cause a response in an organism
2. an object or event that is apprehended by the senses
3. Med a former name for stimulant

Stimulus

 

something that excites to action and motivates behavior. The concept of stimulus is characteristic primarily of those trends in psychology that base behavior analysis on the stimulus-response correlation (classical psychophysics and especially behaviorism, as well as neobehaviorism). The term “stimulus” is also retained in some psychological concepts that in essence supersede the stimulus-response correlation. Thus, for example, in the Würzburg school, a task or an awareness of a goal is considered to be a stimulus. In this case, the term “stimulus” is almost metaphorical. Even further from the term’s original meaning is the treatment it receives in the cultural and historical conceptions of L. S. Vygotskii, who established a functional difference between stimulus objects, at which action is directed, and stimulus means, by which action is accomplished. According to Vygotskii, signs serve as stimulus means.

In sociopsychological studies a distinction is sometimes made between motives as internal excitations and stimuli as external excitations to action (see Chelovek i ego rabota [collection], 1967, pp. 38–39).

V. I. MAKSIMENKO

stimulus

[′stim·yə·ləs]
(control systems)
A signal that affects the controlled variable in a control system.
(physiology)
An agent that produces a temporary change in physiological activity in an organism or in any of its parts.
References in periodicals archive ?
This stage evaluated (a) avoidance of the derived aversive event, C1; (b) avoidance of the directly aversive stimulus, B1; (c) avoidance of the derived pleasant stimulus, C2; and finally (d) avoidance of the directly pleasant stimulus, B2.
In total, 2 of the 9 direct extinction subjects demonstrated extinction of responding to the derived aversive stimulus.
Most subjects in the direct extinction group also failed to demonstrate extinction to the derived aversive stimulus (CI) after the direct extinction procedure.
In total, according to our criterion for avoidance, only 1 of 9 subjects in the direct extinction group demonstrated extinction of avoidance responding to the direct aversive stimulus.
The criterion for avoidance was a minimum of 4 avoidance responses during the 6 derived and direct aversive stimulus presentations (i.
In the direct extinction group, subjects were re-exposed to the four arbitrary stimuli B1, B2, C1 and C2 after being presented with the direct aversive stimulus (B1) repeatedly in extinction.
In this case, restraint will function as a punishment contingency only from its ability to comprise an aversive stimulus presentation to the individual client.
If blocking actually produced an aversive stimulus condition, then punishment effects would have occurred in both experimental conditions (since it was inherent in both experimental conditions).
With DE functions, restraint may or may not produce extinction effects during its implementation, depending on whether the antecedent aversive stimulus condition is terminated by the restraint.
As one example, the onset of an aversive stimulus (e.
it becomes a conditioned aversive stimulus that evokes escape behavior).
Second, beginning with this preexisting relationship (6), some event occurs that adds aversive stimulus qualities to the value of the target person such that that aversive stimulus value saliently competes with the pre-existing appetitive stimulus value.