Porsteinsson and Siguroardottir (2007) used backward chaining to teach a 55-year old woman with chronic aphasia to read compound Icelandic words.
For example, if the task was to name digits but measures showed that the participant could only name the digit when it was modeled by the experimenter, then digit naming was broken down into smaller steps and taught through backward chaining.
The nonlinear transformation involved in computing successive FCM states and the process of reversing the matrix multiplication make the backward chaining
Corvid supports both data-driven forward chaining and goal-driven backward chaining
, allowing the problem to be broken into small discrete parts, and making for faster structured development.
The LIFE Program uses task analyses for all tasks that detail the type of instruction (total task presentation, backward chaining
, forward chaining, clustering, time delay with whole task instruction, and experiential).
For example, PROLOG employs backward chaining
, CLIPS employs forward chaining, and MYCIN uses modus ponens and backward chaining
If the possible results are known and if they are reasonably small in number, backward chaining
is very efficient .
Haley is an advanced rules/inference engine with forward and backward chaining
, advanced truth maintenance and integral support for higher normal forms.
Unique algorithms allow forward and backward chaining
and branch swinging, so users can carry on a discussion that feels like a live conversation.
(in addition to forward chaining), which