In the early twentieth century bandura-playing was revived and pursued at amateur and professional levels; the first bandura kapelia [capella](5) was organised in Kyiv(6) in 1918 (Wytwycky 1984: 171).
North American performance styles are largely characterised by kobzar and kapelia performance styles; in Ukraine, after the exodus of bandurysts, the bandura became institutionalised.
The demands placed on the bandura by this new repertoire necessitated the instrument's reconstruction.
Herasymenko attended the Bandura Festival 2000 in Oakville, Ontario, and played a visibly important role that included a keynote address.
Contemporary developments of the bandura and its relationship to folklore and tradition suggest Hobsbawm and Ranger's concept of "the invention of tradition;" rather than instances of continuity within a culture, "traditions" are actually an adaptation (usually highly formalized) of an older element in a new cultural situation (Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983).
In both Creighton's Nova Scotia and the Ukrainianisms associated with contemporary bandura performances, the "folk" concept and gendered identity markers function together in the creation of a national or cultural identity.
In the case of the bandura there are similar implications; the recent history of state sponsorship in Ukraine links developments of the bandura and the construction of cultural identity.
Within Ukraine, the bandura was deliberately transformed, both physically and in terms of performance practices, in accordance with Communist-controlled discourses of Ukrainian nationhood.
In the words of a well-known diasporic banduryst who wished to remain anonymous, "the conservatory stuff is second-rate bandura repertoire.
The Bandura Festival 2000 took place on the weekend of March 17 to 19 at the St.
The festival began on Friday afternoon with a prayer service honouring bandura players who died at Stalin's bandura players' conference in the 1930s.
Discussion topics included "Teaching Bandura," "Bandura in Ukraine," "Bandura in Diaspora," "Composers and Bandura," "Bandura Construction," and, "Stepping into 2000.