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the stage of development typified by pastoralism identified in early theories of social evolution (see EVOLUTIONARY THEORY). MONTESQUIEU was the first to use the term in this way, arguing that the three main stages in social development were:
  1. hunting or SAVAGERY;
  2. herding or barbarism; and
  3. CIVILIZATION. Later 19th-century evolutionary thinkers, such as E. B. TYLOR and L. H. MORGAN, also adopted the concept.



in the periodization proposed in the 1760’s by the Scottish philosopher A. Ferguson, which became established in European science during the 18th and 19th centuries, the second of the three epochs in the history of mankind: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. Serious substantiation was provided for this scheme by L. H. Morgan, according to whom barbarism begins with the invention of pottery and concludes with the appearance of a written language (Ancient Society, 1877; Russian translation, 2nd ed., 1935). Morgan’s periodization was adopted by F. Engels, who noted, however, that it was conventional (“Proiskhozhdenie sem’i, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva,” in K. Marx and F. Engels., Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21, p. 28). Most contemporary researchers do not use Morgan’s scheme, which is to a considerable degree obsolete: a new periodization of primitive history has been developed in contemporary science.


Tolstov, S. P. “K voprosu o periodizatsii istorii pervobytnogo obshchestva.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1946, no. 1.
Pershits, A. I., A. L. Mongait, and V. P. Alekseev. Istoriia pervobytnogo obshchestva. Moscow, 1968.
Problemy istorii dokapitalisticheskikh obshchestv, book 1. Moscow, 1968.
References in classic literature ?
And in the good days coming, when John Barleycorn will have been banished out of existence along with the other barbarisms, some other institution than the saloon will have to obtain, some other congregating place of men where strange men and stranger men may get in touch, and meet, and know.
It will show we have grown out of fighting barbarism with barbarism.
According to details, Aafia Movement workers and civil society members staged a protest rally in Karachi on the occasion of '9/11' anniversary and raised the demand of immediate release of Dr Aafia Siddiqui and other prisoners of the post 9/11 barbarism.
Many of the desperate families the people-smugglers prey on have been driven from their homes by civil war in Syria and by the barbarism of ISIS.
Talking to the media on the occasion, he said lynching was a barbarism and this case should be sent to a military court like other terrorism cases.
ey ght in over-crowded slums and markets, then cry of barbarism when Israel targets them as they use women and children as shields.
Yes the victim was a Jihadist, but that does not mean that we as a nation of heroic fighters of the First and Second World War have to drop down to their level of barbarism.
The theme of barbarism refers to the violence inherent to this process of abstraction and the sense of self it engenders.
We had previously shown the memory and conscious, self-interested reuse of myths, but this new volume also examines the possibility that there is a subliminal message regarding the elites' fundamental concept of the civilization versus barbarism binomial," explained the historian, who was in charge of the coordination and publication of 'Civilizacion y barbarie: el mito como argumento en los mosaicos romanos' ('Civilization and Barbarism: Myths as plots in Roman Mosaics') (CVG, 2012).
The chairman of the Iranian Judiciary says the US Constitution is nothing but a collection of "the laws of barbarism.
With such contradictions, the (US) Constitution is the law of barbarism," he added.
History shows that you have to commit a small barbarism to prevent a bigger barbarism," the 33-year-old Norwegian said.