barley

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barley,

annual cereal plant (Hordeum vulgare and sometimes other species) of the family Gramineae (grassgrass,
any plant of the family Gramineae, an important and widely distributed group of vascular plants, having an extraordinary range of adaptation. Numbering approximately 600 genera and 9,000 species, the grasses form the climax vegetation (see ecology) in great areas of low
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 family), cultivated by humans probably as early as any cereal. It was known to the ancient Greeks, Romans, Chinese, and Egyptians and was the chief bread material in Europe as late as the 16th cent. It has a wide range of cultivation and matures even at high altitudes, since its growing period is short; however, it cannot withstand hot and humid climates. Today barley is typically a special-purpose grain with many varieties rather than a general market crop. It is a valuable stock feed (often as a corn substitute) and is used for malting when the grain is of high quality. It is a minor source of flour and breakfast foods. Pearl barley is often used in soups. In the Middle East a limited amount of barley is eaten like rice. In the United States most spring barley comes from the western states and most winter barley is grown in the southeastern states for autumn and spring pasture and as a cover crop. Barley is subject to several diseases including smut and rust. Barley is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Liliopsida, order Cyperales, family Gramineae.

barley

[′bär·lē]
(botany)
A plant of the genus Hordeum in the order Cyperales that is cultivated as a grain crop; the seed is used to manufacture malt beverages and as a cereal.

barley

1. any of various erect annual temperate grasses of the genus Hordeum, esp H. vulgare, that have short leaves and dense bristly flower spikes and are widely cultivated for grain and forage
2. the grain of any of these grasses, used in making beer and whisky and for soups, puddings, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tackle the included recipes for Turkish Barley-Yoghurt Soup, Swedish Barley Sausage, or Danish Pancakes and you'll be appropriately fueled up for perusing this overview on research and development of new, barley-based foods--and much more--presented from a food-maker and food-science perspective.
Anyone thinking about growing oats, barley, or wheat will want to pick up this 158-page handbook of practical, reliable information from university Extension Service experts in North Dakota and Minnesota.
barley goes into livestock feed, which explains why Walt Newman, an animal nutritionist at Montana State in Bozeman, became interested in the grain.
to skyrocket from 1 million pounds of oat bran a year 2 million pounds a month by the end of 1989, according to company spokesman Ron Bottrell in Chicago, Barley producers now hope that research findings from Montana State University will create a similar hunger for the fruits of their labors.
Before brewing can begin, barley kernels must be malted.
But the real science behind a glass of good brew starts with the quality of the barley kernels used to make it.
Based on these results, ARS scientists and their University of Idaho co-investigators offered the new barley variety to researchers, plant breeders and seed companies early last year.
These varieties are part of the oat and barley breeding program at the ARS Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research Unit in Aberdeen.
Good malting barley has a relatively low protein content and yields a high extract, or "wort" - the sugary liquid that comes from mashed malt and water.
Some of the investigators' current research into barley enzymes follows up on work they undertook several years ago.
The most common or popular barley is covered barley, used for malting and animal feed.
Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative (USWBSI), ARS plant molecular biologist Ron Skadsen is working to understand and improve barley's resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, which causes the devastating disease commonly known as "scab.