barotrauma


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Related to barotrauma: Sinus barotrauma, volutrauma

barotrauma

[‚bar·ə′trau̇·mə]
(medicine)
Injury to air-containing structures, such as the middle ears, sinuses, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, due to unequal pressure differences across their walls.

Barotrauma

 

injury to the ear (less commonly to other organs containing air or gas, such as the lungs and intestines), arising from a sharp change in atmospheric pressure. The tympanic membrane can tolerate even a marked increase in pressure if it occurs slowly, in which case pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane (on the side of the external auditory meatus and on the side of the tympanic cavity) is equalized through the eustachian tube. In cases of sharp changes (drops) in pressure, for example, in rapid ascents and descents of an airplane, the pressure can be equalized by swallowing (which is why hard candy is given out on an airplane). If the pressure cannot be equalized, the tympanic membrane is sucked in and the pressure is transmitted through the chain of auditory ossicles to the inner ear. At first, a barotrauma is felt as pain in the ear, then hearing is impaired; subsequently, there is noise in the ears and sometimes vertigo. If the drop in pressure is extreme, the tympanic membrane may rupture. Barotrauma occurs in fliers (when diving), parachute jumpers, and divers. Prevention consists in screening persons with clear eustachian tubes for the particular occupations and special training in a pressure chamber.

L. V. NEIMAN

barotrauma

barotraumaclick for a larger image
One example of barotruauma is otitic barotrauma. During ascent, higher pressure in the ear gets equalized. However, during descent, the air from outside is not able to equalize unless there is some action like chewing, swallowing, and valsava maneuver. The situation gets aggravated in case of sinus congestion in which there may not only be pain in the ears during descent but physical injury to the ears.
An injury caused by expansion or contraction of trapped gases in the body resulting from changes in pressure. It can lead to pain in the ears otitic barotrauma, the sinuses sinus barotrauma, and the intestines.
References in periodicals archive ?
Neither signs of barotrauma nor depth at capture affected mortality rates.
The patient was informed about barotrauma when diving and it was recommended that he use a diving mask instead of goggles and practice correct technique for mask equalization.
Decelerating inspiratory flow pattern in PCV ventilation is associated with a lower incidence of airway barotrauma with high peak pressures, while the increased mean inspiratory pressure (Pmean) has positive effects on oxygenation.
05); barotrauma, including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumohypoderma, was found in 18 cases and the CFR was 77.
We could not assign either mechanism of barotrauma to our case, as there was no history of deep inhalation, excessive coughing or retching.
7,8] Causative factors of SPM are less clear although some of the trigger factors such as asthma attack, barotrauma, intrathoracic pressure increase, valsalva maneuver, and withdrawal symptoms of illicit drugs are known.
He was dealing with a middle aged man with barotrauma, a very common problem at the time for patient's receiving mechanical ventilatory support in the high tidal volume era.
Cerebral air embolism is a rare complication that can be induced by pulmonary barotrauma, trauma of the chest or head, and iatrogenic causes such as invasive procedures or surgery [4].
The depth of inhalation, dynamic hyperinflation, and barotrauma may be important factors in some patients who develop emphysema related to cigarette smoking or other factors, as well.
Another less common cause of perforation is injury and could result from the insertion of a sharp object into the ear, a blow to the ear, nearby explosion, barotrauma (pressure damage resulting from flying or diving), or a fracture to the base of the skull.