barotrauma


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Related to barotrauma: Sinus barotrauma, volutrauma

barotrauma

[‚bar·ə′trau̇·mə]
(medicine)
Injury to air-containing structures, such as the middle ears, sinuses, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, due to unequal pressure differences across their walls.

Barotrauma

 

injury to the ear (less commonly to other organs containing air or gas, such as the lungs and intestines), arising from a sharp change in atmospheric pressure. The tympanic membrane can tolerate even a marked increase in pressure if it occurs slowly, in which case pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane (on the side of the external auditory meatus and on the side of the tympanic cavity) is equalized through the eustachian tube. In cases of sharp changes (drops) in pressure, for example, in rapid ascents and descents of an airplane, the pressure can be equalized by swallowing (which is why hard candy is given out on an airplane). If the pressure cannot be equalized, the tympanic membrane is sucked in and the pressure is transmitted through the chain of auditory ossicles to the inner ear. At first, a barotrauma is felt as pain in the ear, then hearing is impaired; subsequently, there is noise in the ears and sometimes vertigo. If the drop in pressure is extreme, the tympanic membrane may rupture. Barotrauma occurs in fliers (when diving), parachute jumpers, and divers. Prevention consists in screening persons with clear eustachian tubes for the particular occupations and special training in a pressure chamber.

L. V. NEIMAN

barotrauma

barotraumaclick for a larger image
One example of barotruauma is otitic barotrauma. During ascent, higher pressure in the ear gets equalized. However, during descent, the air from outside is not able to equalize unless there is some action like chewing, swallowing, and valsava maneuver. The situation gets aggravated in case of sinus congestion in which there may not only be pain in the ears during descent but physical injury to the ears.
An injury caused by expansion or contraction of trapped gases in the body resulting from changes in pressure. It can lead to pain in the ears otitic barotrauma, the sinuses sinus barotrauma, and the intestines.
References in periodicals archive ?
It took roughly two decades (1965-1995) for us to recognize that large tidal volumes that are appropriate for healthy lungs cause barotrauma when their delivery required high pressure.
Fish from depths greater than 60 feet may suffer from barotrauma and need that particular care before release.
Relationship between ventilatory settings and barotrauma in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
3) Although there is currently no predictive correlation between the incidence of computed tomography findings of barotrauma and the occurrence of nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum, these findings should be used as a retrospective tool to direct the physician to consider a nonsurgical cause of the pneumoperitoneum.
97) Bats are also highly susceptible to fatalities from wind energy development (98)--this occurs not only from collision with turbines directly, but from barotrauma (99) as well.
In the US, several studies have shown bats suffer barotrauma - exposure to a significant change in pressure - when they get too close to turbine blades.
Titration of pressure to avoid barotrauma can therefore be challenging when a ventilator may deliver a pressure up to 27% higher than the set pressure.
will 1) evaluate different descending devices for releasing rockfishes suffering from barotrauma, and 2) monitor long-term survival and behavior of rockfishes released using these devices.
He said that passengers should chew a gum during take-off of an aeroplane as air pressure on the eardrum due to barotrauma results in the rupture of the eardrum and consequent deafness, adding that opening and closing the mouth by chewing is an important tip for the ear care.
It is hypothesized that the barotrauma caused by forcing specimens to ascend to the surface from an average depth of 90 m during sampling can cause premature ovulation of hydrated oocytes.
Fishes judged to be in good condition and with milder signs of barotrauma were held for tagging (Fig.
She said the heart valve problem could have played a role, and Dr Fletcher's rapid ascent to the surface had resulted in barotrauma - air bubbles getting into her system - which could also have been a contributory factor.