Barrow

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Barrow,

city (1990 pop. 3,469), N Alaska; inc. 1958. It is the northernmost (71° 16' N) U.S. settlement and the trade center of the Alaska North SlopeAlaska North Slope
or Arctic North Slope,
region, N Alaska, sloping from the Brooks Range N to the Arctic Ocean. In 1968 large petroleum reserves were found in the Prudhoe Bay area.
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. Government agencies, Eskimo crafts, and tourism are important to the economy. A U.S. navy arctic research laboratory is there. Point Barrow, 9 mi (14 km) NE, is the northernmost (71° 23' N) point in the United States. The Will Rogers–Wiley Post crash (1935) site and monument lie to the southwest.

Barrow,

river, c.120 mi (190 km) long, rising in the Slieve Bloom Mts., Co. Laoighis, central Republic of Ireland. It flows east to the Co. Kildare line, then south along the borders of several counties, past Athay (the head of navigation), Carlow, and New Ross, to Waterford Harbour. It receives the Nore and the Suir rivers.

barrow,

in archaeology, a burial mound. Earth and stone or timber are the usual construction materials; in parts of SE Asia stone and brick have entirely replaced earth. A barrow built primarily of stone is often called a cairncairn,
pile of stones, usually conical in shape, raised as a landmark or a memorial. In prehistoric times it was usually erected over a burial. A barrow is sometimes called a cairn.
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. Barrows occur in many parts of the world; they were built during the Neolithic period in Western Europe and in recent times in Buddhist countries. In European prehistory the characteristic barrows are either long or round. The long ones are from the Neolithic period and often contain several burial chambers. They may have been intended to simulate cave burials. The stone chambers were placed at one end of the mound and were approached by a passage, sometimes over 300 ft (90 m) in length. Round barrows, usually dating from the Bronze Age, normally contain a single burial. The round barrow was commonly bell shaped; another type had a low central mound that invariably contained cremated remains and was surrounded by a walled ditch or a circle of standing stones, usually about 150 ft (50 m) in diameter. Barrow building in Europe continued until the Christian era. Roman, Saxon, and Viking barrows are known, though such burials were apparently reserved for important personages. The erection of mounds over burials has been widespread (see tombtomb,
vault or chamber constructed either partly or entirely above ground as a place of interment. Although it is often used as a synonym for grave, the word is derived from the Greek tymbos [burial ground]. It may also designate a memorial shrine erected above a grave.
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). The round barrow or stupastupa
[Sanskrit,=mound], Buddhist monument in tumulus, or mound, form, often containing relics. The words tope and dagoba are synonymous, though the latter properly refers only to a Sinhalese Buddhist stupa.
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 of Asia is usually a shrine for relics of the Buddha. See megalithic monumentsmegalithic monument
[Gr.,=large stone], in archaeology, a construction involving one or several roughly hewn stone slabs of great size; it is usually of prehistoric antiquity.
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 and Mound BuildersMound Builders,
in North American archaeology, name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts.
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.

Barrow

 

(also, depending on locality, kurgan, tumulus, cairn, burial mound), a mound over an ancient grave; sometimes, earth-covered ruins of various burial structures (made of wood, stone, or earth).

The first barrows appeared in the late Neolithic period and in the Aeneolithic period (fourth and third millennia B.C.) in the Caspian and Black Sea steppes (barrows of the Old Pit culture), in Ciscaucasia (barrows of the Maikop culture), and in Transcaucasia (seeKURA-ARAKS AENEOLITHIC). In the second half of the third millennium B.C., barrows became widespread in Asia Minor, the Balkans, and Central Europe. They later became prevalent on all the continents (except Australia). In eastern and northern Europe and in Central Asia, they were constructed until the late Middle Ages.

Barrows are generally hemispherical, although some have an oval or rectangular foundation. The sizes vary: from barrows measuring 0.3–0.6 m high and 3–4 m in diameter to those measuring more than 20 m high and 100 m in diameter. The long barrows have the shape of elongated mounds, which increased in height as more members of a tribal group were buried.

The barrows were heaped over graves dug in the ground, as well as over burials made on the surface of the earth. The graves beneath the mounds have various arrangements: vaults, catacombs, timber frames. Apart from the graves, there are often additional structures beneath the mounds, for example, small enclosures made of rocks, and stone, brick, or pisé walls and arches. Where cremation was practiced, the dead were cremated either at the site of the mound or elsewhere and the remains then buried beneath the barrow. Barrows heaped over large clan cemeteries are known, with the graves arranged in concentric circles, rows, and other formations. In addition to the principal interments, entrance-way burials, which were made later, are encountered in the mounds. Sometimes, each succeeding burial was accompanied by the addition of more earth, thus increasing the height of the barrow.

The remains of funerary feasts are often found in the mounds: coals from fire, animal bones, dishes, and the like. Almost always, various utensils, food, and weapons were placed in the grave. Among some people, the horses, slaves, and wives of the deceased were buried either in the grave or in special chambers beneath the mound. There are individual barrows, but more often they are grouped together, sometimes as many as 3,000 mounds (for example, the Gnezdovo burial mounds).

With the development of property stratification, the differences between rich and poor burials became more pronounced. The barrows of the tribal chiefs of the middle and end of the first millennium B.C. in the steppes of the European USSR (among the Scythians and Maeotae), in southern Siberia, and in Mongolia are particularly distinguished by their wealth and size.

The custom of burial in barrows (kurgans) ceased among the urban population in Rus’ with the introduction of Christianity. The rural population, however, continued to bury its dead according to the old, heathen rite until the 14th century.

A. L. MONGAIT

barrow

[′ba·rō]
(engineering)

barrow

2. An elongated artificial mound protecting a prehistoric chamber tomb or passage grave.

barrow

a heap of earth placed over one or more prehistoric tombs, often surrounded by ditches. Long barrows are elongated Neolithic mounds usually covering stone burial chambers; round barrows are Bronze Age, covering burials or cremations

Barrow

1. a river in SE Ireland, rising in the Slieve Bloom Mountains and flowing south to Waterford Harbour. Length: about 193 km (120 miles)