On initial physical exam, the patient demonstrated signs of skull base fracture
, including periorbital ecchymyosis (Figure 1) and hemotympanum.
In addition, the results of our study also demonstrated that a greater condylar height to ramus height ratio decreases the likelihood of a condylar base fracture
but increases the probability of a condylar head fracture.
On the other hand the least prevalent complications were denture base fracture
(06%), clasp fracture (06%) and wearing off of artificial teeth (9%).
Despite regular inspections, the rail defect was not detected because the bolt hole crack and the rail base fracture
were behind the joint bars which made visual detection difficult, especially in the winter months when snow covered the rail base.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE Guideline) now recommends selection of adults for CT scan in minor head trauma when within 1 hour having GCS less than 13 when assessed or GCS less than 15 2 hours after injury suspected open/depressed or skull base fracture
post traumatic seizure focal neurological deficit persistent vomiting or loss of consciousness since injury.
Skull base fracture
involving the clivus was the most common finding.
Further data in this regard has been provided by Kiziklilic,  who found that the earliest complete closure of the synchondrosis occurred at the age of 13 years, and if a transverse hypodense zone across the clivus is seen on CT scans in individuals with head trauma who are 13 years of age or older, it is more likely to represent a skull base fracture
than a persistent synchondrosis.
2) 3 months following the initial injury revealed ipsilateral nonunions of a comminuted type I coracoid base fracture
Radiological imaging, an hour later, demonstrated no brain injury, skull base fracture
or cervical spine injury.
Lastly, denture base fracture
was seen in 3% patients which were all due to dentures falling to the floor on repeated occasions.
CSF rhinorrhea refers to the flow of CSF through skull base fracture
or defects and dural tears into the nasosinus or nasocavity, and CSF drains from the nose.
Out of these 96 cases, 29 cases sustained skull base fracture
while the remaining 67 cases sustained fracture of vault of skull.