In this article results of thermodynamic analysis and technology of subsequent, third stage, of ferronickel refining by oxygen first in the acid converter for the purpose of reducing content of silicon, chrome and partially carbon and then in the basic converter for removal of phosphorus, carbon and sulfur up to the limit values in correspondence with requirements of TU U 27.
The main task of the process of ferronickel refining in basic converter is its dephosphorization, whereby one has to keep in mind that in melting of lean ferronickel (5-7% Ni) with application of lean (0.
Process of ferronickel dephosphorization in basic converter during its blowing by oxygen under high-basicity slag with high content of (FeO) may be presented in general form by the following summarized reaction [5, 8]:
Ferronickel refining in basic converter of up to 50 t capacity (mass of the metal being processed is 33-35 t) is performed under slag, which by the end of the process has the following composition,%: 0.
The manufacturers and broadcasters also jointly recommended the features of the basic converter
boxes that would be eligible for the coupon program, while agreeing that functions such as electronic program guide navigation and "smart antenna" interfaces should not preclude converter boxes from obtaining approval under NTIA's program.
At the final stage of refining in basic converter content of oxygen may constitute up to 0.
At the final stage ferronickel is discharged from acid converter into a ladle with its subsequent pouring into the basic converter with periclase-carbon (periclase-chromite) lining, in which carbon and phosphorus are oxidized and content of sulfur is reduced.
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Also, new sections on design of multiple-winding magnetic and resonant inverter design; additional appendices on Computer Simulation of Converters using averaged switch modeling, and Middlebrook's Extra Element Theorem, including four tutorial examples; and expanded treatment of current programmed control with complete results for basic converters
, and a great deal more.
Buck-boost topology can be achieved through cascade connection of the two basic converters
(buck converter and boost converter).