basin


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basin

1. any partially enclosed or sheltered area where vessels may be moored or docked
2. the catchment area of a particular river and its tributaries or of a lake or sea
3. a depression in the earth's surface
4. Geology a part of the earth's surface consisting of rock strata that slope down to a common centre

basin

A huge crater. Lunar basins are multiringed structures that are several hundred kilometers in diameter and were all produced during the first 750 million years of lunar history by intense meteoritic impact. The youngest basins (Orientale, Imbrium, Crisium, Nectaris, and Serenitatis) may have been excavated during a cataclysmic period around 3900 million years ago. The ejecta blankets of basins are extensive and provide the basis for highland stratigraphy. Basins are so defined by their systems of concentric ring structures, most of which are now in the form of ridges and mountain arcs. Basins on the Moon's nearside were filled with lava at some time up to 3000 million years ago to produce maria: the resulting mare has the same name as the basin (e.g. Mare Imbrium). Several unfilled basins (thassaloids) exist on the farside, the largest of which was revealed as a vast depression by the Apollo 15 laser altimeter. At least 28 basins are now known to exist. See also rille; mascons.

Basin

 

the accumulation of water flows with no drainage or with slow drainage in natural or artificial depressions in the earth’s surface. Basins are formed when there are en-closed hollows on the surface and when the water flowing into them exceeds the water lost by evaporation and seepage into the soil. Basins can be permanent or temporary, arising only during periods of the year which abound in water. Basins are classified as freshwater or saltwater, depending upon their chemical composition and the amount of salts dissolved in the water. The physical, chemical, and bio-logical processes in basins progress in various ways, depending upon the type of basin. Reservoirs, ponds, and canals are artificial basins.


Basin

 

negative (hollow) form of relief of the earth’s surface with more or less isometric or slightly elongated outlines. A basin may be closed on all sides or open in one or two directions. On the basis of morphology flat-bottom, bowl-shaped, and other basins are distinguished; by origin basins are divided into tectonic, volcanic (for example, calderas), erosion, glacial (for example, moraine-dammed basins), deflation, and karst. By drainage conditions they are divided into basins through which water flows, basins with outlets, and basins without outlets (in arid regions).

In the geomorphology of the sea floor a distinction is made between basins in the transition zone, which are occupied by geosynclinal seas, and oceanic basins, which are the largest negative forms of relief on the ocean floor.

basin

[′bās·ən]
(civil engineering)
A dock employing floodgates to keep water level constant during tidal variations.
A harbor for small craft.
(design engineering)
An open-top vessel with relatively low sloping sides for holding liquids.
(geology)
A low-lying area, wholly or largely surrounded by higher land, that varies from a small, nearly enclosed valley to an extensive, mountain-rimmed depression.
An entire area drained by a given stream and its tributaries.
An area in which the rock strata are inclined downward from all sides toward the center.
An area in which sediments accumulate.
(metallurgy)
The mouth of a sprue in a gating system of castings into which the molten metal is first poured.
(oceanography)
Deep portion of sea surrounded by shallower regions.

basin

1. A somewhat shallow vessel for holding water (or the like).
2. A shallow tank or natural or artificial depression containing water.
References in classic literature ?
She peeped out at him two or three times as she stood washing herself in the little basin between the windows.
He was interrupted by a long and heavy groan which arose from the little basin, as though, in truth, the spirits of the departed lingered about their watery sepulcher.
In the middle of a sentence, however, Jurgis stopped, seeing that the woman had brought a big basin of water and was proceeding to undress her youngest baby.
The basin was refilled, and this time he stood over it a little while, gathering resolution; took in a big breath and began.
Such another small basin of thin gruel as his own was all that he could, with thorough selfapprobation, recommend; though he might constrain himself, while the ladies were comfortably clearing the nicer things, to say:
It was night: a candle burnt on the table; Bessie stood at the bed-foot with a basin in her hand, and a gentleman sat in a chair near my pillow, leaning over me.
Then it flashed on me - 'The clown at my elbow, who is drinking his tea out of a basin and eating his broad with unwashed hands, may be her husband: Heathcliff junior, of course.
Contemptible as the influence seemed, when compared with her situation at that moment, the bare sight of the jug and basin in a corner of the room decided her first resolution when she woke.
Sullenly enough, the jackal loosened his dress, went into an adjoining room, and came back with a large jug of cold water, a basin, and a towel or two.
Nobody under the table, nobody under the sofa; a small fire in the grate; spoon and basin ready; and the little saucepan of gruel (Scrooge had a cold in his head) upon the hob.
I sat down to my brown loaf, my egg, and my rasher of bacon, with a basin of milk besides, and made a most delicious meal.
Dolly's exhortation, which was an unusually long effort of speech for her, was uttered in the soothing persuasive tone with which she would have tried to prevail on a sick man to take his medicine, or a basin of gruel for which he had no appetite.