batholith


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batholith,

enormous mass of intrusive igneous rock, that is, rock made of once-molten material that has solidified below the earth's surface (see rockrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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). Batholiths usually are granitic (see granitegranite,
coarse-grained igneous rock of even texture and light color, composed chiefly of quartz and feldspars. It usually contains small quantities of mica or hornblende, and minor accessory minerals may be present.
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) in composition, have steeply inclined walls, have no visible floors, and commonly extend over areas of thousands of square miles. Batholiths are formed either as one large mass or many smaller masses at great depths in the earth's crust and are exposed at the surface only after considerable erosion of the overlying mountain mass. They are commonly associated with lithospheric plate boundaries, where the interactions between plates can produce sufficient heat to melt crustal rocks on a large scale and form batholiths (see plate tectonicsplate tectonics,
theory that unifies many of the features and characteristics of continental drift and seafloor spreading into a coherent model and has revolutionized geologists' understanding of continents, ocean basins, mountains, and earth history.
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). One of the largest single batholiths in North America is the Coast Range batholith of W Canada and Alaska, encompassing an area of about 73,000 sq mi (182,500 sq km). Important batholiths in the United States include the Idaho batholith, 18,000 sq mi (45,000 sq km), and the Sierra Nevada batholith, 16,000 sq mi (40,000 sq km).

batholith

[′bath·ə‚lith]
(geology)
A body of igneous rock, 40 square miles (100 square kilometers) or more in area, emplaced at great or intermediate depth in the earth's crust.
References in periodicals archive ?
The U-Pb geochronological work was coordinated with field mapping of the Saint George Batholith by the Geological Surveys Branch of the New Brunswick Department of Energy and Resource Development during the summers of 2015 and 2016.
The Saldana Formation presents faulted and depositional contacts with Cretaceous marine sediments and intrusive relations with the Mocoa Batholith (FIGURE 2B).
Metavolcanic and metasedimentary granulites together with dominant plutonic charnockitoid rocks dominate this region, where the 1850-1820 Ma multiphase Kursiai charnockitic batholith has previously been outlined geographically on the basis of numerous drillings and geophysical data (Motuza et al.
The calculated LAB is located at a depth of 85 km with a horizontal geometry except at the southwestern end in the Pedroches batholith and in the CU, which progressively rises up to [approximately equal to] 80 km of depth in agreement with the lithospheric thinning proposed from the ID-averaged shear velocity modeling (bottom diagram in Fig.
The Karakoram Batholith belongs, with the Ladakh- and Kohistan Batholiths and the Gandese magmatic belt, to the Trans-Himalayan plutons and gives evidence to the Late Mesozoic subduction of the Indian Plate (Coward et al.
If young children live hours that seem eternal, their time is not the silent age of granite batholiths but the Precambrian, when lava brimmed from volcanoes and the wind whipped fierce currents across new-made seas.
The syenite represents a marginal event of the batholith, of which it constitutes scarcely a 5% of the area; it grades from medium grain size to pegmatitic.
The very rare Li-Na-Zr silicate was first found in 1966 in Washington Pass, Okanogan County, Washington, in an arfvedsonite granite phase of the alkaline igneous complex forming the Golden Horn batholith.
Stuart batholith in the North Cascades (see Beck and Noson 1972), that called for some 3000 kilometres of northward motion for the western Cordillera since then--a solid-earth equivalent of the speed of light.
For example, in a small watershed in the Idaho batholith, annual erosion (averaged over a six year period) increased 770 times above the ambient level after logging roads were constructed (Megahan and Kidd 1972).
In the northern part of Peru, between Maranon river and the Eastern Cordillera is located the Gollon--Callangate Batholith shaped by discontinuous plutonic bodies along 100 kilometers, from Santo Tomas to Bambamarca.
2-mile-deep, protected source within the Idaho Batholith aquifer (America's only QAI-certified source).