57) These laws require that a police officer arrest suspected batterers
when there is probable cause to believe that abuse has occurred.
Program goals vary by state but most include facilitating batterers
to accept responsibility for their violent behavior and develop healthy responses to relational stress and conflict (Domestic Abuse Project, 1993; McLeod et al.
Experts suggest that batterers
successfully repeat the cycle of violence because they are able to "reengage [the victim] over and over again in a way that can be baffling to outsiders who do not understand the deep combined effects of trauma, intimidation, and manipulation which can form strong 'trauma bonds.
Although use of physical violence may decrease during counseling, batterers
who fear the legal repercussions from physical violence may resort to increased use of psychologically abusive tactics to continue to maintain control in the relationship (Edleson & Grusznski, 1988).
escalation of abuse if the batterer
learns that DV has been
Although there is no empirical research on the differential effect of the standard cognitive-behavioral treatment program on outcomes for white and African American batterers
, some authors have argued that the lack of cultural competence among treatment programs has a negative impact on African American participants (Bennett & Williams, 2001; Williams, 1992, 1994; Williams & Becker, 1994).
Thus, as incarceration of violent offenders has grown, the increase in incarceration of batterers
is not surprising.
Partnerships also have been developed with the Association of Batterers
Intervention Providers and the St.
can be very well respected in their community.
A large majority of batterers
are male (McConnell, 2000; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998).
But Hamill does not say the batterer
needs sympathy; he says he needs language.
In Part I, I make the case that both individual batterers
and the communities of which they are a part are responsible for domestic violence.