Ypres

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Ypres

(ē`prə), Du. Ieper, commune (1991 pop. 35,235), West Flanders prov., SW Belgium, near the French border. It is an agricultural market and an industrial center. Manufactures include textiles, textile-making machinery, and processed food. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was one of the most powerful towns of Flanders, with a flourishing cloth industry that rivaled those of GhentGhent
, Du. Gent, Fr. Gand, city (1991 pop. 230,246), capital of East Flanders prov., W Belgium, at the confluence of the Scheldt and Leie rivers. Connected with the North Sea by the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal and by a network of other canals, Ghent is a major port and
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 and BrugesBruges
or Brugge
, city (1991 pop. 117,063), capital of West Flanders prov., NW Belgium, connected by canal with Zeebrugge (on the North Sea), its outer port. It is a rail junction as well as a commercial, industrial, and tourist center.
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. However, political and social unrest and foreign wars led to the decline of this industry. A center of resistance to Spanish rule, the town was taken (1584) and sacked by Alessandro FarneseFarnese, Alessandro
, 1545–92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586–92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he
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. It was held by France from 1678 to 1716 and from 1792 to 1814. In World War I, Ypres was the scene of three great battles (see Ypres, battles ofYpres, battles of,
three major engagements of World War I fought in and around the town of Ypres in SW Belgium. The first battle of Ypres (Oct.–Nov., 1914) was the last of the series of engagements referred to as "the race for the sea.
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). The town was completely destroyed during the war and was later rebuilt. Among the city's restored buildings are the Gothic Cathedral of St. Martin and the magnificent cloth-workers hall (both originally built in the 13th cent.). On the ramparts of the fortifications built (late 17th cent.) by Vauban is a British memorial gate designed by Reginald Blomfield. Outside the town's walls are some 40 military cemeteries.

Ypres

 

(Flemish, leper), a city in northwestern Belgium, in the province of West Flanders. Population, 18,500 (1967). It is the site of textile and food industries. Machines used in the production of textiles are also manufactured. The city was first mentioned in chronicles in 1109. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, Ypres competed with Bruges and Ghent as the center of the production of cloth by guilds. Later the city went into a decline. Architectural landmarks in Ypres include the Cathedral of St. Martin (13th-15th centuries) and Cloth Hall (1200–1304), a masterpiece of secular Gothic architecture. Other monuments of medieval Lowlands architecture have also been preserved.

During World War I (1914–18) in the vicinity of Ypres, the German Fourth Army launched a counterattack against the Ypres salient (April 1915) and forestalled an offensive being prepared by the Anglo-French forces. The Germans occupied most of the salient. On April 22, the first day of fighting, the Germans used a weapon of chemical warfare (chlorine gas) and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. This was the first use of chemical warfare in the history of war. In 1917, from July 7 to November 6, the English Fifth and Second armies and the French First Army repeatedly launched offensives. Achieving minor successes, they suffered enormous losses. On July 12, 1917, the Germans used mustard gas, which is also known as yperite, for the first time.

REFERENCE

Deyne, V. de. Ypres …. Liège, 1925.

Ypres

a town in W Belgium, in W Flanders province near the border with France: scene of many sieges and battles, esp in World War I, when it was completely destroyed. Pop.: 35 021 (2004 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The cemetery is at the spot where Canadian doctor John McCrae wrote the poem In Flanders Fields while sitting in the back of an ambulance at a dressing station at the height of the Second Battle of Ypres.
Passchendaele:UnseenPanoramas of the Third Battle of Ypres, by Peter Barton, is published by Constable, pounds 30.
It's unclear when he earned the Military Medal and then the second bar, although it's believed he earned the Military Medal during the second battle of Ypres in 1916 or the battle of Mount Sorrel in June 1916, where he is credited with capturing a number of German soldiers.
An artist's impression of the |Green Howards evacuating the wounded at the Battle of Ypres in 1914' Henry Tandey (also above and right) is pictured carrying a comrade
Within days of arriving in Bel-gium, the men were fighting for their lives in the Second Battle of Ypres.
Pte William Hughes (pictured, originally from Glasinfryn near Bangor, joined the First Battalion Welsh Guards and fought in all major battles on the Western Front and was awarded the DCM for bravery during the third battle of Ypres.
I just can't believe John Corden was only a few years older than me AIDAN CAMPBELL-DUNNE AGED 11, AT POELCAPELLE 250 The number of 19 who signed in the First Wo 0k f lads under up to fight orld War 60k British troops killed in the Second Battle of Ypres over a two-month period
Another brave soldier was Pontypridd-born Sergeant Robert Bye who was awarded a VC at the age of 27, in 1917, following his leadership and heroism in the third Battle of Ypres.
HEROES OF GHELUVELT THE Battle of Gheluvelt, which took place on October 31 1914 , was part of the First Battle of Ypres, the climax of the German offensive against France and Belgium.
This action brought to an end the First Battle of Ypres and their heroic stand stopped the German advance to the coast.
Alexis Helmer, who was killed in the Second Battle of Ypres.
He is emotional to learn the fate of his great-grandfather, who fought in the First World War and was killed at the battle of Ypres.