Ypres

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Ypres

(ē`prə), Du. Ieper, commune (1991 pop. 35,235), West Flanders prov., SW Belgium, near the French border. It is an agricultural market and an industrial center. Manufactures include textiles, textile-making machinery, and processed food. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was one of the most powerful towns of Flanders, with a flourishing cloth industry that rivaled those of GhentGhent
, Du. Gent, Fr. Gand, city (1991 pop. 230,246), capital of East Flanders prov., W Belgium, at the confluence of the Scheldt and Leie rivers. Connected with the North Sea by the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal and by a network of other canals, Ghent is a major port and
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 and BrugesBruges
or Brugge
, city (1991 pop. 117,063), capital of West Flanders prov., NW Belgium, connected by canal with Zeebrugge (on the North Sea), its outer port. It is a rail junction as well as a commercial, industrial, and tourist center.
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. However, political and social unrest and foreign wars led to the decline of this industry. A center of resistance to Spanish rule, the town was taken (1584) and sacked by Alessandro FarneseFarnese, Alessandro
, 1545–92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586–92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he
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. It was held by France from 1678 to 1716 and from 1792 to 1814. In World War I, Ypres was the scene of three great battles (see Ypres, battles ofYpres, battles of,
three major engagements of World War I fought in and around the town of Ypres in SW Belgium. The first battle of Ypres (Oct.–Nov., 1914) was the last of the series of engagements referred to as "the race for the sea.
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). The town was completely destroyed during the war and was later rebuilt. Among the city's restored buildings are the Gothic Cathedral of St. Martin and the magnificent cloth-workers hall (both originally built in the 13th cent.). On the ramparts of the fortifications built (late 17th cent.) by Vauban is a British memorial gate designed by Reginald Blomfield. Outside the town's walls are some 40 military cemeteries.

Ypres

 

(Flemish, leper), a city in northwestern Belgium, in the province of West Flanders. Population, 18,500 (1967). It is the site of textile and food industries. Machines used in the production of textiles are also manufactured. The city was first mentioned in chronicles in 1109. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, Ypres competed with Bruges and Ghent as the center of the production of cloth by guilds. Later the city went into a decline. Architectural landmarks in Ypres include the Cathedral of St. Martin (13th-15th centuries) and Cloth Hall (1200–1304), a masterpiece of secular Gothic architecture. Other monuments of medieval Lowlands architecture have also been preserved.

During World War I (1914–18) in the vicinity of Ypres, the German Fourth Army launched a counterattack against the Ypres salient (April 1915) and forestalled an offensive being prepared by the Anglo-French forces. The Germans occupied most of the salient. On April 22, the first day of fighting, the Germans used a weapon of chemical warfare (chlorine gas) and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. This was the first use of chemical warfare in the history of war. In 1917, from July 7 to November 6, the English Fifth and Second armies and the French First Army repeatedly launched offensives. Achieving minor successes, they suffered enormous losses. On July 12, 1917, the Germans used mustard gas, which is also known as yperite, for the first time.

REFERENCE

Deyne, V. de. Ypres …. Liège, 1925.

Ypres

a town in W Belgium, in W Flanders province near the border with France: scene of many sieges and battles, esp in World War I, when it was completely destroyed. Pop.: 35 021 (2004 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Passchendaele:UnseenPanoramas of the Third Battle of Ypres, by Peter Barton, is published by Constable, pounds 30.
Exactly 100 years ago, during the third Battle of Ypres, an attack by British and French troops faltered because a concealed blockhouse was being defended by a machine gun post of the German army.
He joined the Green Howards as a Private 2437, A Company, 1st/4th Battalion, Yorkshire Regiment, and was killed in action aged just 19 years at the second battle of Ypres, on June 3, 1915.
He was awarded the Military Medal for his service at the Third Battle of Ypres, in the Belgian village of Passchendaele.
Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, claimed the lives of more than 70,000 soldiers in just three months.
In this first re-examination of the first Battle of Ypres since 1967, Prof.
1917 : The War Office announced details of a new medal to be awarded to soldiers who fought in the early part of the war in 1914 up to the Battle of Ypres.
The North Wales Rugby Choir and Gwynedd opera singer Rhys Meirion were among those who took part in the ceremony, which was held exactly 100 years after the beginning of the Third Battle of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, in the early hours of July 31, 1917.
The Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) was one of the most horrific episodes of the First World War, remembered as a remorseless slog through the mud and rain, and was fought in Belgium from July 31 to November 10, 1917, lasting a total of 103 days.
The Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) was one of the most horrific episodes of the First World War, remembered as a remorseless fight through mud and rain, and was fought in Belgium from July 31 to November 10, 1917, lasting a total of 103 days.
FACTUAL A century ago, the third battle of Ypres was fought from 31 July to November 6 in northern Belgium.
Ledwidge was killed at the third battle of Ypres in July 1917.