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Pole, English noble family


English noble family. The first member of importance was

William de la Pole, d. 1366, a rich merchant who became the first mayor of Hull (1332) and a baron of the exchequer (1339). His oldest son,

Michael de la Pole, 1st earl of Suffolk, 1330?–1389, fought in France in the Hundred Years War under Edward the Black Prince. He became the trusted adviser of Richard IIRichard II,
1367–1400, king of England (1377–99), son of Edward the Black Prince. Early Life

After his father's death (1376) he was created prince of Wales and succeeded his grandfather, Edward III, to the throne.
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, who made him chancellor (1383) and earl of Suffolk (1385). In the Parliament of 1386 his enemies forced his dismissal, and he was impeached and imprisoned. Richard soon released and reinstated him, but when the baronial opposition again demanded his arrest, De la Pole fled (1387) to France. "Appealed" of treason and sentenced to death in the Merciless Parliament of 1388, he died in exile. His grandson,

William de la Pole, 4th earl and 1st duke of Suffolk, 1396–1450, played an active role in the later stages of the Hundred Years War and for a time held the chief command. He arranged the marriage (1445) of Margaret of AnjouMargaret of Anjou
, 1430?–1482, queen consort of King Henry VI of England, daughter of René of Anjou. Her marriage, which took place in 1445, was negotiated by William de la Pole, 4th earl (later 1st duke) of Suffolk (see under Pole, family).
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 to Henry VIHenry VI,
1421–71, king of England (1422–61, 1470–71). Reign
Early Years

The only son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, he became king of England when he was not yet nine months old.
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 and rose to a position of great political authority, reaching the peak of his power in 1448 when he was made duke. His persistent efforts to gain peace with France enabled his enemies to accuse him of treason, especially after disastrous losses in Normandy. His long record of service, his eloquent appeal to Parliament, and even the favor of the king could not save him from impeachment. When setting out for a five-year exile he was abducted from his ship and beheaded in a boat off Dover. His wife was the granddaughter of Geoffrey Chaucer. His son,

John de la Pole, 2d duke of Suffolk, 1443–91, married Edward IV's sister Elizabeth and held offices under that king. He later supported Richard III, yet was favored by Henry VII. Of his sons, the eldest was

John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, 1464–87, who was recognized by Richard III as his heir presumptive. At first he appeared to accept Henry VII, but he soon joined the rebellion in favor of Lambert SimnelSimnel, Lambert
, c.1475–1525, imposter and pretender to the English throne. Little is known of his early life, but before 1486 he caught the attention of an Oxford priest, Richard Simon or Symonds, who trained him to impersonate Richard, duke of York, younger son of
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. He led an invading army from Ireland and was killed at the battle of Stoke. The second son,

Edmund de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, 1472?–1513, agreed to the wish of Henry VII that he forego the ducal title in return for some of the property forfeited as a result of his brother's treason. Later he declared his ambition for the throne and tried to get help on the Continent. He was eventually delivered (1506) as a prisoner to Henry VII by the Burgundians. He was imprisoned for years and finally executed by Henry VIII. The fifth son,

Richard de la Pole, d. 1525, took over Edmund's claim to the throne and received intermittent support from the French. He was killed in the battle of Pavia fighting for Francis I of France. He was the last of his line.

pole, in electricity and magnetism


in electricity and magnetism, point where electric or magnetic force appears to be concentrated. A single electric chargecharge,
property of matter that gives rise to all electrical phenomena (see electricity). The basic unit of charge, usually denoted by e, is that on the proton or the electron; that on the proton is designated as positive (+e
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 located at a point is sometimes referred to as an electric monopole. An electric dipole consists of two equal and opposite charges separated by a distance. Some molecules, although electrically neutral as a whole, do not have their charges distributed symmetrically, so that the separation of the centers of positive and negative charge constitutes an electric dipole; such molecules are called polar molecules. In calculating the electric potentialpotential, electric,
work per unit of electric charge expended in moving a charged body from a reference point to any given point in an electric field (see electrostatics).
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 at a distance r from an electric dipole, it is found that it varies principally as 1/r2, while the potential around a single charge varies as 1/r. More complex arrangements of charges may have potentials whose principal term contains a higher power of the distance r. A charge configuration for which the principal term of the potential varies as 1/r3 is called an electric quadrupole; similarly, an octupole is characterized by a potential varying as 1/r4, a 16-pole by 1/r5, and so forth. In magnetismmagnetism,
force of attraction or repulsion between various substances, especially those made of iron and certain other metals; ultimately it is due to the motion of electric charges.
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, poles may be defined in an analogous way, so that an ordinary bar magnet with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other constitutes a magnetic dipole. The potential energy associated with a given arrangement of magnets may be analyzed similarly to that of an array of charges. The analogy is not complete, however, since no isolated magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles) have been found in nature, though some scientists believe their existence possible.


A slender log used as a structural member, with or without the bark removed.

What does it mean when you dream about a pole?

A pole can be a symbol of female sexuality. There are a number of idiomatic uses of the term to which a dream might be alluding, as in the expression “poles apart” or “low on the totem pole.” The word is also sometimes used to refer to someone who is extremely thin.


A direction perpendicular to one of the faces of a crystal.
One of the points at which normals to crystal faces or planes intersect a reference sphere at whose center the crystal is located.
One of the electrodes in an electric cell.
An output terminal on a switch; a double-pole switch has two output terminals.
An isolated singular point z0 of a complex function whose Laurent series expansion about z0 will include finitely many terms of form an (z-z0)-n .
For a great circle on a sphere, the pole of the circle is a point of intersection of the sphere and a line that passes through the center of the sphere and is perpendicular to the plane of the circle.
For a conic section, the pole of a line is the intersection of the tangents to the conic at the points of intersection of the conic with the line.
For a quadric surface, the pole of a plane is the vertex of the cone which is tangent to the surface along the curve where the plane intersects the surface.
The origin of a system of polar coordinates on a plane.
The origin of a system of geodesic polar coordinates on a surface.
A point at which an axis of rotation or of symmetry passes through the surface of a body.
The geometric center of a convex or concave mirror.


A long, slender, tapering piece of wood; a pale, prop, stake, or stay.


1. a long slender usually round piece of wood, metal, or other material
2. the piece of timber on each side of which a pair of carriage horses are hitched
3. another name for rod
4. Horse racing chiefly US and Canadian
a. the inside lane of a racecourse
b. (as modifier): the pole position
c. one of a number of markers placed at intervals of one sixteenth of a mile along the side of a racecourse
5. Nautical
a. any light spar
b. the part of a mast between the head and the attachment of the uppermost shrouds
6. under bare poles Nautical (of a sailing vessel) with no sails set


1. either of the two antipodal points where the earth's axis of rotation meets the earth's surface
2. Astronomy short for celestial pole
3. Physics
a. either of the two regions at the extremities of a magnet to which the lines of force converge or from which they diverge
b. either of two points or regions in a piece of material, system, etc., at which there are opposite electric charges, as at the two terminals of a battery
4. Maths an isolated singularity of an analytical function
5. Biology
a. either end of the axis of a cell, spore, ovum, or similar body
b. either end of the spindle formed during the metaphase of mitosis and meiosis
6. Physiol the point on a neuron from which the axon or dendrites project from the cell body
7. Geometry the origin in a system of polar or spherical coordinates


Reginald. 1500--58, English cardinal; last Roman Catholic archbishop of Canterbury (1556--58)