belligerency

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belligerency

(bəlĭj`ərənsē), in international law, status of parties legally at war. Belligerency exists in a warwar,
armed conflict between states or nations (international war) or between factions within a state (civil war), prosecuted by force and having the purpose of compelling the defeated side to do the will of the victor.
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 between nations or in a civil war if the established government treats the insurgent force as if it were a sovereign power. The rules of international law as formulated at the Hague ConferencesHague Conferences,
term for the International Peace Conference of 1899 (First Hague Conference) and the Second International Peace Conference of 1907 (Second Hague Conference). Both were called by Russia and met at The Hague, the Netherlands.
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 require that belligerency between states be preceded by an absolute declaration of war or an ultimatum prescribing the terms on which the issuing power will refrain from war. When belligerency has been established, the relations between the warring powers are determined by the laws of war (see war, laws ofwar, laws of,
in international law, rules and principles regulating an armed conflict between nations. These laws are designed to minimize the destruction of life and property, to proscribe cruel treatment of noncombatants and prisoners of war, and to establish conditions under
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). In civil wars if the insurgent force is granted belligerency rights, neutral nations generally abstain from supplying or helping either the established government or its opponent. An example of this practice is found in the neutralityneutrality,
in international law, status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. Neutrality is not to be confused with neutralism, or nonalignment, under international law.
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 proclamations issued by European powers in the American Civil War. Neutral nations may refuse to recognize the belligerency of an insurgent, however, and in this way preserve the right to claim any damages that accrue against the established government for having failed to suppress the rebellion without delay. Under its charter, the United Nations recognizes as legitimate only wars that are fought in self-defense, or for the collective enforcement of the UN Charter. All other wars are regarded as illegal acts of aggression. The United Nations also considers civil wars as threatening to international peace, and, when possible, takes measures to end such hostilities (e.g., Kashmir, Palestine, Korea, the Congo, Cyprus).

Bibliography

See W. L. Gould, An Introduction to International Law (1957).

References in periodicals archive ?
Also, the EU can be a diplomatic force to defend border states against bullying by larger neighbours such as the current Ukraine and Federal Russia belligerence.
There's so much emotion involved in these discussions that it seems to me the belligerence of some folk can make others dig their heels in just for the sake of it.
Nor is there any appetite for belligerence that could all too easily spiral out of control.
Even when De Kock departed in the 42nd over, his belligerence was more than matched in a 105-run stand from 46 balls between skipper AB de Villiers (77) and JP Duminy (59 not out) to ensure the Proteas were in the box seat to go 1-0 up in the three-game series.
With her track record and belligerence, it is hardly surprising that suspicions are raised in safeguarding taxpayers' money.
According to Sport24, Bacher said that one of the hallmarks of Smith's batting is his ability to take the match away from the opposition with his belligerence when a score of 150 or more is needed for a victory.
Through the voice of the narrator, Comrade Nimbus, the reader follows the escalation of their belligerence in opposition to the world outside of their tiny militant cell, belligerence that coalesces in the awareness that they are linguistically similar to the Red Brigades combatants: "they speak like us," Scarmiglia (Comrade Flight) asserts.
The move came in response to continuing North Korean belligerence, with Pyongyang reportedly preparing to test-launch missiles and conduct another underground nuclear test in defiance of global calls for it to stop provocations.
Meanwhile, brokers cast doubts on the ability of Bahrain Bourse and other GCC exchanges to improve their performance in light of continuous political upheavals in the region, Iranian belligerence and the euro zone crisis.
For this reason, I welcome the opposition in every Arab country, but I admit that I do not understand the cause of the Kuwaiti opposition's tension and belligerence, and its pursuit of a path that damages the interests of the whole country, that is to say, the interests of the opposition itself along with the rest of the citizens.
The 21-year-old Ulster winger was the star of a scarcely believable seven-try rout of opposition famed for their belligerence.
However, Kirkburton seemed undaunted by man-of-the-match award winner Bocarro's belligerence and opening pair Tommy Hardiman and left-hander Stuart Greaves started smartly raced to 50 in just four overs.