belligerency

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belligerency

(bəlĭj`ərənsē), in international law, status of parties legally at war. Belligerency exists in a warwar,
armed conflict between states or nations (international war) or between factions within a state (civil war), prosecuted by force and having the purpose of compelling the defeated side to do the will of the victor.
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 between nations or in a civil war if the established government treats the insurgent force as if it were a sovereign power. The rules of international law as formulated at the Hague ConferencesHague Conferences,
term for the International Peace Conference of 1899 (First Hague Conference) and the Second International Peace Conference of 1907 (Second Hague Conference). Both were called by Russia and met at The Hague, the Netherlands.
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 require that belligerency between states be preceded by an absolute declaration of war or an ultimatum prescribing the terms on which the issuing power will refrain from war. When belligerency has been established, the relations between the warring powers are determined by the laws of war (see war, laws ofwar, laws of,
in international law, rules and principles regulating an armed conflict between nations. These laws are designed to minimize the destruction of life and property, to proscribe cruel treatment of noncombatants and prisoners of war, and to establish conditions under
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). In civil wars if the insurgent force is granted belligerency rights, neutral nations generally abstain from supplying or helping either the established government or its opponent. An example of this practice is found in the neutralityneutrality,
in international law, status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. Neutrality is not to be confused with neutralism, or nonalignment, under international law.
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 proclamations issued by European powers in the American Civil War. Neutral nations may refuse to recognize the belligerency of an insurgent, however, and in this way preserve the right to claim any damages that accrue against the established government for having failed to suppress the rebellion without delay. Under its charter, the United Nations recognizes as legitimate only wars that are fought in self-defense, or for the collective enforcement of the UN Charter. All other wars are regarded as illegal acts of aggression. The United Nations also considers civil wars as threatening to international peace, and, when possible, takes measures to end such hostilities (e.g., Kashmir, Palestine, Korea, the Congo, Cyprus).

Bibliography

See W. L. Gould, An Introduction to International Law (1957).

References in periodicals archive ?
Details were also provided on how Indian belligerence and unhelpful posturing is distracting Pakistan's counterterrorism efforts and how an active RAW/NDS nexus is verifiably working to undermine Pakistan's internal stability,' an FO statement said.
Islamabad [Pakistan], July 13 ( ANI ): Pakistan's Foreign Office on Thursday claimed that regional peace and security could be compromised both in the short and long term by India's belligerence.
For South Sudan to counter such belligerence, it has all the natural options.
Together, we will counter the North Korean regimes belligerence and boost our economic ties with our allies, which will create more high-paying jobs here at home.
Islamabad -- Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says Pakistan has demonstrated utmost restraint in the face of Indian belligerence.
ISLAMABAD -- Pakistan says it is forcefully raising the Indian belligerence on the Line of Control (LoC) and gross human rights violations in occupied Kashmir with important countries.
With Glamorgan only 130 ahead with three wickets in hand, Essex's fourth straight victory looked a realistic prospect but Wallace's belligerence brought him 75 and helped Glamorgan into a strong position, 260 ahead with one wicket still to fall.
Nobody really explained how all that belligerence would defuse a threat that can manifest itself in homegrown Americans, like the health inspector who killed his colleagues in San Bernadino.
The topics range from publicly-promoted prayer to efforts to undermine public education and replace it with taxpayer-subsidized vouchers for religious schools, interfering with end-of-life and reproductive rights, censorship, and belligerence directed against nonbelievers and minorities.
A host of players who were affected by the sickness were involved in the semi-final between the fierce rivals at Franklin's Gardens, yet Saracens produced a display of customary belligerence to reach the Twickenham showpiece against Bath, who crushed Leicester 47-10 at the Recreation Ground.
It is heartening to note that the Gulf countries are standing together in the face of Iran's belligerence.
Despite the persistence of belligerence in real-world foreign policies, freer markets have connected people in unprecedented ways while new weapons have created new balances of power, making real-world diplomacy thankfully less of a zero-sum affair than this venerable game.