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bergamot(bûr`gəmŏt') [from Bergamo, Italy], citrus tree (Citrus bergamia) grown chiefly in Italy, belonging to the family Rutaceae (ruerue,
common name for various members of the family Rutaceae, a large group of plants distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and most abundant in S Africa and Australia. Most species are woody shrubs or small trees; many are evergreen and bear spines.
..... Click the link for more information. family). From the rind of the bergamot orange is extracted an essential oil used in perfumes and eau de Cologne. Various North American plants of the Labiatae (mintmint,
in botany, common name for members of the Labiatae, a large family of chiefly annual or perennial herbs. Several species are shrubby or climbing forms or, rarely, small trees.
..... Click the link for more information. family) are also called bergamot because of their bergamotlike fragrance. Chief among these is Monarda fistulosa, or wild bergamot, closely related to Oswego tea, or bee balmbee balm,
name for several herbs, especially Melissa officinalis and Monarda didyma, both typical perennials of the family Labiatae (mint family) named for their fragrance, attractive to bees and hummingbirds. Melissa [Gr.
..... Click the link for more information. , which it resembles. The name bergamot is also applied to a variety of pear. True bergamot is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
..... Click the link for more information. , class Magnoliopsida, order Sapindales, family Rutaceae.
(1) The name of certain varieties of pear trees that have flat, rounded fruits, such as the autumn bergamot, the red summer bergamot, the muscatel bergamot, the Volga bergamot, and others. The autumn bergamot is the most popular of them; it is an ancient Russian cultivated variety. The fruits are of medium size and are dark green with brick-red and brown tint. The flesh is soft and grainy, with a sweet, winy taste and a pleasant aroma. The trees begin to bear fruit in the seventh to ninth years; the yield is one or two centners per tree. Bergamots are distributed in the central belt of the RSFSR, in Latvia, and in Lithuania.
(2) Citrus bergamia is a small evergreen fruit tree (3–5 m tall) of the Rutaceae family and the Aurantiaceae subfamily. The leaves are oval oblong, 6.5–13.5 cm long and 2.5–7.5 cm wide, and either pointed or blunt at the tip. The leaves are dark green on top and light green on the underside. The fruits are of medium size, pear-shaped, and 4.5–6.0 cm in diameter. The skin of the fruit is golden yellow and has a specific odor. The flesh is sour or acidic, slightly bitter, and not very edible. The tree begins to bear fruit after seven or eight years. Five species are known. The bergamot was introduced into cultivation along the Mediterranean in the 17th century. In the USSR, bergamots are grown in small quantities on the Black Sea coast (Georgian SSR). Bergamot ethereal oil (about 1.75 percent) is obtained from the skin of the fruit, as well as from the blossoms, leaves, and young shoots. Bergamot oil is used in the perfume and candy industries. Agricultural techniques for growing the bergamot are the same as those for other citrus cultivation.