However, in its native state tritium is a low-energy beta emitter
and, as beta particles do not penetrate human skin, is typically harmless to humans.
It also contains a Beta Activity Determination Chart to determine the activity of a known beta emitter
from a measurement with the monitor.
I then chose three species, 3H (a pure beta emitter
with no gammas), 18F and 22Na (both of which decay by both electron capture and positron emission) and was somewhat surprised to see them as having no betas or, in the case of the latter two, as undergoing electron capture with no mention of positron decay.
Injecting phosphorus-32, a pure beta emitter
, into the affected joints achieves the same result without the surgery and for a cost of perhaps only $4,000, he says.
So we must adjust the half-life of the radioisotope to the right biological time frame while also having a good beta emitter
that provides a good uniform dose to the tumor.
Based on the zero threshold energy for neutrino absorption beta emitters
, a model for configuration mixing between distinct [[beta].
In 2015, the beta emitters
segment accounts for the largest share of the European nuclear medicine/radiopharmaceuticals therapeutic market.
Radiopharmaceuticals in the diagnostics market are categorized as SPECT and PET, whereas radiopharmaceuticals in the therapeutics market are categorized as beta emitters
, brachytherapy isotopes, and alpha emitters.