beta particle


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beta particle,

one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivityradioactivity,
spontaneous disintegration or decay of the nucleus of an atom by emission of particles, usually accompanied by electromagnetic radiation. The energy produced by radioactivity has important military and industrial applications.
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. Beta radiation (or beta rays) was identified and named by E. Rutherford, who found that it consists of high-speed electronselectron,
elementary particle carrying a unit charge of negative electricity. Ordinary electric current is the flow of electrons through a wire conductor (see electricity). The electron is one of the basic constituents of matter.
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. Unlike alpha and gamma particles, whose energy can be explained as the difference of the energies of the radioactive nucleus before and after emission, beta particles emerge with a variable energy. This apparent violation of the law of conservation of energy (see conservation lawsconservation laws,
in physics, basic laws that together determine which processes can or cannot occur in nature; each law maintains that the total value of the quantity governed by that law, e.g., mass or energy, remains unchanged during physical processes.
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) led to the hypothesis that a second undetected particle, the neutrinoneutrino
[Ital.,=little neutral (particle)], elementary particle with no electric charge and a very small mass emitted during the decay of certain other particles. The neutrino was first postulated in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli in order to maintain the law of conservation of energy
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, is emitted along with the electron and shares the total available energy. In some forms of induced, or artificial, radioactivity, the electron's antiparticleantiparticle,
elementary particle corresponding to an ordinary particle such as the proton, neutron, or electron, but having the opposite electrical charge and magnetic moment.
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, the positron, is emitted from the excited nucleus; the positron in this case is also called a beta particle and denoted by β+ (the ordinary beta particle is β).

beta particle

An energetic electron or positron ejected by beta decay.

beta particle

[′bād·ə ‚pard·ə·kəl]
(nuclear physics)
An electron or positron emitted from a nucleus during beta decay.

beta particle

Physics a high-speed electron or positron emitted by a nucleus during radioactive decay or nuclear fission
References in periodicals archive ?
greater hazard than those that emit beta particles and gamma radiation.
This isotope, which emits beta particles and low-energy gamma rays, would also be injected directly into the joints.
Moe and his colleagues have spent the last few years looking for a form of radioactivity known as neutrinoless double-beta decay, characterized by the simultaneous emission of two beta particles, or electrons.
The wavelength-shifter contains a cyclic, aromatic group emitting light in response to the tritium beta particles.
Beta particles are released when a neutron in nuclei turns into a proton, or vice versa.
If you had three cookies-one that emits alpha particles, one that emits beta particles, and one that emits gamma rays-which one would you eat, which would you hold, and which would you put in your pocket?
Beta particles (high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons) can create radicals by pushing electrons from other atomic or molecular orbitals.
Negatively charged beta particles or positively charged alpha particles, positrons or fission fragments may be utilized.
High-energy beta particles from yttrium-90 efficiently irradiate cancer cells within the targeted volume, but very little radiation escapes.
The numbers represent a count of subatomic beta particles ejected from the nucleus of radioactive atoms.
Often three things fall under the catch-all term "radiation:" gamma rays, which are high energy photons (light), beta particles, which are electrons and positrons, alpha particles, which are helium nuclei, and neutrons.
Beta particles are stronger and can penetrate the skin.