Inhaled or injected adrenaline or ephedrine became widespread in the treatment of asthma and persisted until the development of more specific beta-2 agonists
such as salbutamol.
Previous studies showed that treatment with beta-2 agonists
, in particular salbutamol, might increase the incidence of cardiac arrhythmia at high doses in asthmatics (1, 2,8).
Since the patient has also had several exacerbation episodes, one can build an argument for using a combination of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-2 agonist
Despite years of moderate to high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and beta-2 agonists
, they still suffered episodes of dyspnea, expectoration, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness more than two times a week, and waking up at night with asthma symptoms more than two times a week.
Although the guidelines suggest that all asthmatics should have access to a rescue medication, fewer than 40 percent of the Medicaid patients received an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist
during the study year.
The American Academy of Allergy and Immunology has been concerned that media reports which question the use of beta-2 agonists
to treat asthma have caused great anxiety among asthmatics and the public.
You see developmental trends there: -- Monoclonal antibodies -- Ultra-Long Acting Beta-2 Agonists
-- Muscarinic Antagonist Beta-2 Agonists
-- Anti-leukotriene agents -- LAMA/LABA Combinations -- Developments in delivery systems -- Developments in telehealth
1 Beta-2 Agonists
, Key Products World Sales ($m), 2008-2014
These patients generally maintain asthma control with daily use of a combination of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-2 agonist
, and having a short-acting beta-2 agonist
available for quick relief.
Combination Inhaled Corticosteroids and Long-acting Beta-2 Agonists
Pearl is rapidly advancing a pipeline of products including PT003 (GFF MDI), an inhaled, fixed-dose combination bronchodilator product comprised of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and a long-acting beta-2 agonist
(LABA) delivered via a metered dose inhaler (HFA MDI); and PT010 (GMFF MDI), a triple-combination product that combines the LAMA and LABA components of PT003 with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for twice-daily administration from an HFA MDI for the treatment of severe COPD.
PT003 is a proprietary fixed-dose combination of glycopyrrolate (GP), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and formoterol fumarate (FF), a long-acting beta-2 agonist
(LABA) delivered via a pressurized hydrofluoroalkane metered dose inhaler (HFA MDI).