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The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books. Modern bibliography began with the invention of printing and at first consisted of "trade" bibliographies, i.e., lists of the publications of important publishing houses, comparable to those in the present-day Publisher's Trade List Annual, British Books in Print, and Books in Print. There have been efforts at universal bibilography: in 1545 at Zürich, Konrad von GesnerGesner, Konrad von
, 1516–65, Swiss scientist and bibliographer. Gesner was noted for his scholarship and erudition in almost every field of knowledge. He lived in Zürich and other European cities, teaching physics and natural history and practicing medicine and
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 published his Bibliotheca universalis; in 1895 the International Institute of Bibliography was established at Brussels. There are national bibliographies, such as the Library of Congress Catalog and the British Museum Catalogue; subject bibliographies, such as Sabin's Dictionary of Books Relating to America; and lists of the works of individual authors. Bibliographies of rare and old books include Book Prices Current. The Cumulative Book Index is a monthly bibliography of books in the English language that cumulates annually. The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature is useful for British publications, and the Bibliographic Guide to the Study of the Literature of the U.S.A., by C. L. Gohdes, for American works. The Bibliographical Index, which is cumulative, and World Bibliography of Bibliographies are useful compilations. The term bibliography is also used to describe books as physical objects and their production history, and has been expanded to include nonprint media such as microfilm.


See A. J. K. Esdaile, Manual of Bibliography (4th ed. 1967); R. Downs, Bibliography (1967); E. W. Padwick, Bibliographical Method (1969); A. M. Robinson, Systematic Bibliography (3d ed. 1971); R. Stokes, The Function of Bibliography (1982); D. Drummel, Bibliographies (1984).



a branch of scholarly and practical activity the tasks of which include providing information on published works and their active dissemination, for definite social purposes.

The discipline that studies bibliographical production, the history and theory of bibliography, and the organization and methods of bibliographical activity is called bibliographical science. The development of bibliography is assured by a system of special institutions (the bibliographical service), the result of whose activity is bibliographical production, which is a type of reference literature.

Soviet bibliography studies and disseminates published works from the positions of Communist Party ideology and in the interests of the cultural development and communist upbringing of the people and the active promotion of socialist construction and scientific and technical progress. The distinguishing characteristics of Soviet bibliography are its scientific and mass nature, its multinational character, and its striving to encompass by means of its service all categories of readers. Theoretical guidelines on problems of bibliography are contained in the works of V. I. Lenin and N. K. Krupskaia and in documents of the CPSU.

In capitalist countries bibliography is often used as a means of propagandizing reactionary ideology, primarily under the slogans of “objectivity,” “above party lines,” “freedom of information,” and others.

The term “bibliography” originated in ancient Greece and initially signified “the writing of books.” Only from the middle of the 17th century did it come to be used in the sense of “description of books.” The very history of bibliography begins with the origin of book printing. In the modern understanding the object of bibliography is considered to be published works of all kinds, including manuscript books created before the invention of book printing as well as manuscripts of modern times which have a social and scholarly importance (for example, dissertations and also deposited manuscripts, that is, manuscripts which have been stored for preservation). The transformation of printed text, caused by the development of technology and the appearance of microfilms, phonograph records, and other audiovisual materials, has led to the gradual widening of the object of bibliography.

Over a lengthy period bibliography developed together with literary and scholarly criticism. The differentiation between the various branches of knowledge led to the separation of bibliography from these branches of activity, although the evaluations which published works receive from literary and scientific criticism (only a small percent of published works receive such attention) serve as a basis for characterizing these works in bibliography. The journalistic forms of bibliography have to this very day developed in considerable measure together with criticism. In studying the content of published works bibliography is tangential to the specific branches of knowledge and can be considered an auxiliary branch (subject bibliography).

The development of bibliography has been greatly influenced by the achievements of science and culture, as well as by the growth of the reading demands of society. In turn, bibliography influences scientific, literary, and technical creative work, as well as publishing and library work, the book trade, education, and self-education. This influence is reflected in the fact that, in explicating published works and in selecting and characterizing them, bibliography aids in the drawing of conclusions concerning the development of a science and the creation of a point of departure for further investigations; it reflects the contribution of specific persons, peoples, or countries in the development of culture; and it indicates the literature that is necessary in order to conduct a historiographical study of a question, thereby putting into circulation both newly published works and earlier ones which were not well known or which had been forgotten. In disseminating published works which have accumulated in libraries or which have been newly republished, bibliography facilitates the spread of definite scholarly points of view; political, philosophical, and aesthetic opinions; and technical improvements. It plays a large role in guiding the reader and thus has an effect on the formation of social consciousness.

Bibliography is closely allied with scientific and technical information. As distinguished from the latter, however, bibliography communicates information not about scientific theories, ideas, and facts in themselves but rather about the published works in which they are set forth, and it performs educational, enlightening, and guiding functions, in addition to its scientific and informational functions.

In the USSR and many other countries there is a system requiring submission of an obligatory (control) copy of a published work on the basis of which published works are recorded for specific categories of readers and materials are then selected for specific purposes (such as self-education, scientific research activity, or the like).

Of essential importance is the classification of published works, which in addition to selection is a means of making known their content and determining their scholarly and ideological significance. This classification is carried out as follows: by the forms of the published works (books, periodical publications, and others); by formal criteria, such as alphabetization of authors or titles, chronology, or place of publication; and by content—thematic, subject, and systematic grouping. For the last of these the USSR has two basic schemes of classification—the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and the Soviet Library-Bibliographical Classification (BBK). These schemes, however, are only used as a common base for grouping published works, and in each specific case bibliographers create their own schemes of systematization, which are most effective in connection with the given theme, the reader’s purpose, and the aim of the published works.

Of the utmost importance is the description of the published works, which includes such information as the author’s or authors’ last name, the title of the work, its subtitle, any data given above the title, place of publication, name of the publishing house, date of publication (year), and scope (number of pages and illustrations). Where necessary, the number of copies printed is indicated, as well as the price and other information. Such elements of description are usually determined by established rules, as well as by standards (in the USSR both are operative). The major ways to describe the content of a published work are through the annotation, the abstract, and, for its group description, the survey.

In the selection, classification, and description of a published work there emerges the class-party character of bibliography and its connection with a definite point of view regarding the classification of sciences and regarding the character and content of social phenomena.

Depending upon its social purpose, bibliography may be divided into registration bibliography, scientific-auxiliary bibliography, and recommended bibliography. According to the content of the materials being described bibliographically, distinctions are made between general bibliography and special, the latter including subject bibliography and thematic bibliography. Depending on the time of publication as reflected by the published works, bibliography may be divided into current bibliography, retrospective bibliography, and prospective bibliography. According to the place of publication of the published works the distinctions are made between international bibliography, state bibliography, and regional bibliography; in accordance with the geographic scope of the material being described bibliographically, a work may be included under national studies bibliography or a regional studies bibliography. The special types of bibliography consist of the bibliography of bibliographies (secondary bibliography) and biobibliography (personal bibliography). To a considerable degree, the list of types enumerated above has a provisional character. Thus, on social purpose questions, besides those types cited above as being among the types of bibliography, some bibliographers would single out critical bibliography and mass information bibliography, whereas others would mention book trade bibliography, and so forth. During 1970 in the USSR there was developed the standard Bibliography: Terms and Definitions, which is the first serious step on the path to regularizing bibliographical terminology.

Depending upon the form of publication, there are distinctions made between bibliographical manuals, bibliographical journals, bulletins, and newspapers, as well as indexes and lists of literature that are part of books and articles.

Bibliography in Russia. The beginnings of Russian bibliography date back to the 11th century. The oldest known text is the article entitled “Bogoslov’tsa ot sloves” in the Sviatoslav Miscellany (1073). This article contains lists of “true” (that is, approved by the church authorities) and “hidden,” or “false” books (prohibited, apocryphal works). In the following period the basic bibliographical works were lists of true and false books and also inventories of monastery libraries (the most important of which was the Description of the Manuscripts Located in the Cyril-BelozeroMonastery by an unknown author at the end of the 15th century). Deserving of mention is the inventory of liturgical books entitled Index, compiled in 1584 by Arsenii Vysokii, the curator of books at the Spaso-Prilutsk Monastery in Vologda. During the 17th century, in the inventories of the patriarch’s and tsar’s libraries, printed books of a secular character are encountered more and more often. Considered as the most outstanding work in pre-Petrine Russia is the work entitled The Titles of Books, and Who Wrote Them (1665 or 1666, the most probable author of which was Sil’vestr Medvedev); it represents a unique kind of collection of original and translated books (1,800 titles).

The economic and cultural transformations of the Petrine epoch facilitated the development of bibliography. With the introduction of secular type (1708) there appeared a general bibliography of literature, printed in this typeface. At the Academy of Sciences, established in St. Petersburg in 1725, a bibliography of abstracts came into being. During the years 1742–44 catalogs of the academy’s library were published. With the opening of a book shop under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences (1728) there also appeared a book trade bibliography. Subject bibliography came into being— historical (1736), geographical (1748), and a number of others. The development of bibliography in the 18th century was greatly influenced by M. V. Lomonosov, who put forth plans for abstracting scientific literature and called for the “more rapid spread in the republic of sciences of information about books” (Poln. sobr. soch., vol. 3, Moscow-Leningrad, 1952, p. 218). During the second half of the 18th century there appeared critical bibliographical sections in journals, as well as independent journals devoted entirely to this subject. G. L. Bakmeister published a bibliographical journal entitled Russische Bibliothek (1772–89) in order to acquaint foreigners with Russian literature. A. major contribution to the development of Russian bibliography was made by N. I. Novikov, especially in his Essay on a Historical Dictionary of Russian Writers (1772). He also originated the first bibliographical journal in Russia, Sanktpeters-burgskie uchenye vedomosti (St. Petersburg Learned Register; 1777). A number of valuable beginnings, including attempts to compile a complete enumeration of Russian books, were made by the bishop Damaskin (D. E. Semenov-Rudnev), N. N. Bantysh-Kamenskii, A. I. Bogdanov, and others.

The general upswing in political and cultural life at the beginning of the 19th century also caused the growth of bibliography. During the years 1811–12, V. G. Anastasevich, in the journal Ulei (Beehive), published articles that laid down the scientific foundations of Russian bibliography. The most significant event since the beginning of bibliography in Russia was V. S. Sopikov’s Essay on Russian Bibliography (parts 1–5, 1813–21; republished in 1904–08 by V. N. Rogozhin with notes, supplements, and auxiliary indexes). Sopikov’s work represents the most complete collection on printed books in the Russian and Church-Slavonic languages from the end of the 15th century to 1818 (basically to 1813). In the Essay, the best books are put forth from a progressive position. In following years relatively complete enumerations of Russian books were represented in the catalogs of the pay libraries of V. A. Plavil’shchikov, A. F. Smirdin, and M. D. Ol’khin. Bibliography occupied an important place in the pages of journals, and it became one of the weapons in the ideological and political struggle. There came into being a special journal Bibliograficheskie listy (Bibliographic Pages; 1825–26), published by P. I. Keppen. A considerable part of the printed production of Russia was reflected in N. A. Polevoi’s journal Moskovskii telegraf (Moscow Telegraph). The dissemination of knowledge about books was also facilitated by A. A. Kraevskii’s Otechestvennye zapiski (Fatherland Notes). Of enormous importance for bibliography was the literary critical activity of V. G. Belinskii, at first in Kraevskii’s Otechestvennye zapiski and later in Sovremennik (contemporary), in which he created a critical bibliographical section. Belinskii asserted that “for a journal a bibliography is just as much the soul and life as criticism is” (Poln. sobr. soch., vol. 2, 1953, p. 48).

In 1837, in the Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniia (Journal of the Ministry of Public Education), the “official” registration of published works was begun. Subject bibliography continued to develop in the fields of history, statistics, geography, literature, law, and maritime affairs. An essential contribution to the biobibliography of Russian writers and scientists was made by E. A. Bolkhovitinov. The bibliography of bibliographies came into being with the work of P. I. Keppen, K. I. Bazili, I. P. Sakharov, and V. M. Undol’skii.

During the second half of the 19th century there was a strengthening in the role of bibliography in ideological, political, and scholarly life. In the progressive journals the sections on criticism and bibliography were utilized as a forum for the dissemination of revolutionary democratic ideas. Of outstanding importance for the development of bibliography was the activity of N. G. Chernyshevskii, who carried out extensive propaganda for “books which deserve attention” and of N. A. Dobroliubov, who felt that bibliography must serve progressive social interests. A number of specialized journals made their appearance— Bibliograf (The Bibliographer), Bibliogr afiche skie zapiski (Bibliographic Notes; 1858–59, 1861), and Knizhnyi vestnik (Book Herald; 1860–67).

The representatives of various social trends made extensive use of recommended bibliographies, which took on a special form thanks to the activity of the democratic circles of the intelligentsia. The recommended bibliography first arose in the field of pedagogical literature (the works of F. G. Toll’, V. I. Vodovozov, and others). Subsequently the revolutionary Narodnik (revolutionary-Populist) trend of recommended bibliography was most clearly manifested in the Odessa Catalog (1882–83) and especially in the Cheliabinsk Index (1883); the liberal-Narodnik trend in the manual What the People Should Read (vols. 1–2, 1884–89; vol. 3, 1906), created under the direction of Kh. D. Alchevskaia; and the liberal-bourgeois trend in Book About Books, edited by 1.1. Ianzhul (parts 1–2, 1892)

The current registration of literature in the Zhurnal Ministerstva nar. prosveshcheniia, broken off in 1855, went through several attempts at restoration and was finally continued in 1869 by the newspaper Pravitel’stvennyi vestnik (Government Herald; through 1902, interrupted during the years 1877–78), by the journal Ukazatel’ po delam pechati (Index on Printing Affairs; in 1877–78), and by the yearbook List of Books Put Out in Russia (from 1903 to 1907). Book production up to the end of the 1880’s was also reflected in the catalogs of the book stores belonging to 1.1. Glazunov, A. F. Bazunov, and la. A. Isakov; an important compiler of catalogs was V. I. Mezhov.

In the field of bibliography of periodical publications the major work of A. N. Neustroev was published, entitled Historical Research on Russian Periodical Publications and Collections During the Period 1703–1802 (1874). G. N. Gennadi compiled the first major retrospective index of Russian bibliographical materials, Literature of Russian Bibliography (1858), as well as the Reference Dictionary of Russian Writers and Scholars . . . (1876–1908).

The economic development of Russia in the postreform period caused a considerable growth in subject bibliography. Valuable works appeared on history, economics, the peasant question, geography, statistics, pedagogy, natural science, mathematics, agriculture, mining, and the oil and gold industries. In the compilation of these an important role was played by V. I. Mezhov, the Lambin brothers, I. Pede and N. N-v (I. P. Daragan and N. S. Nesterov), A. D. Pedashenko, and others. Also published were works on regional studies bibliography—on Siberia and Turkestan (V. I. Mezhov), the Caucasus (M. M. Miansarov), the Transcaspian region (Z. M. Penkina), and many others.

At the end of the 19th century bibliographical organizations made their appearance. The Moscow Bibliographical Circle had existed since 1889, and the Russian Bibliographical Society was established in 1900 under Moscow University. These organizations paid considerable attention to the theory and methodology of bibliography, and they issued the journals Knigovedenie (Bibliographical Studies) (1894-96) and Bibliograficheskie isvestiia (Bibliographical News). The Russian Bibliographical Society was established in St. Petersburg in 1899. In 1901, Russia joined the International Bibliographical Commission on Natural Science and Mathematics; the Bureau of International Bibliography was established under the Academy of Sciences.

The most important characteristics of bibliography at the turn of the 20th century were the further growth of its social significance as a means of spreading political, educational, and scientific information and the penetration of bibliographical publications into broad democratic circles. A recommended bibliography with a Marxist tendency came into being. It was represented by brief lists of literature in the publications of the Liberation of Labor group and by lists, surveys, and announcements of the publication of new newspapers and brochures, which were printed in the pages of the newspapers lskra and Pravda, the journal Prosveshchenie (Enlightenment), and others, as well as in the Calendar for Everyone for 1908, the Worker’s Companion for 1914, and others. Important works were the Social Democrat’s Library by P. Lebedev (P. Kerzhentsev; 2nd ed., 1906) and What the Social Democrat Should Read by S. G. Strumilin (1906). An outstanding Marxist bibliographical work was the survey of the works and editions of K. Marx, as well as of literature on Marxism, written by V. I. Lenin in 1914 and included in his article “Karl Marx” (published in the Granat Encyclopedic Dictionary, vol. 28, 7th ed., 1915). In this survey there is an extremely vivid manifestation of the principle of Communist Party ideology in the selection of literature, its grouping according to ideological tendencies, and the concise description of the social and political essence of the views of each author.

Bourgeois democratic tendencies were also gieatly developed in bibliography, in the works of K. N. Derunov, including A Model Library Catalog (1906, 1908–11), and in the first works of I. V. Vladislavlev—the series What to Read (1911–17) and bibliographical yearbooks for 1911–14. The most important representative of this tendency was N. A. Rubakin, the author of the significant bibliographical work Among Books (2nd ed., 1911–15). In conjunction with the publication of the second volume of this work, V. I. Lenin published a review in which, after noting that such a type of publication was of enormous interest, he criticized its compiler for eclecticism and for a concealed polemic against socialism (see Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25, pp. 111–14).

There was a sharp increase in subject bibliography; bibliographical works appeared on technology and industry, transportation, and many problems of natural science. There was further development in the bibliography of history, Slavic studies, statistics, fiction and literary scholarship, medicine, and other subjects. Among these works on subject bibliography the most important were the Index of Russian Literature on Mathematics, Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, Medicine, and Veterinary Science for the years 1872–91 (1873–94) and for the years 1899–1906 (1901–13), edited by N. A. Bunge and V. K. Sovinskii; Russian Physics and Mathematics Bibliography for 1587–1816 (vols. 1–3, 1885–1900) by V. V. Bobynin; Russian Bibliography on Natural Science and Mathematics, covering the period 1901–13 (vols. 1–9, 1904–17); Russian Literature From the XI Through the XIX Century Inclusive (parts 1–2, 1899–1902) by A. V. Mez’er; Pushkin in Print: 1814–1837 (1914) by N. Siniavskii and M. Tsiavlovskii; and works by N. P. Zagoskin, S. R. Mintslov, D. N. Zelenin, and others. Deserving of mention among scholarly works of bibliographic significance is V. S. Ikonnikov’s Essay on Russian Historiography (1891–1908).

A classic bibliographical work is N. M. Lisovskii’s index entitled. Russian Periodical Press: 1703–1900 (1915). Biobibliography received extensive development in such works as S. A. Vengerov’s A Critical Biographical Dictionary of Russian Writers and Scholars . . . (1st ed., vols. 1–6, 1889–1904) and Sources for a Dictionary of Russian Writers (vols. 1–4, 1900–1917) and D. D. Iazykov’s^ Survey of the Lives and Works of Recently Deceased Russian Writers (vols. 1–13, 1885–1916). The bibliography of regional studies also continued to develop (Lithuania, Astrakhan Krai, Kuban’, and others).

There appeared a number of works on the bibliography of bibliographies (catalogs of libraries compiled by N. F. Bokachev, 1890; N. P. Smirnov, 1898; The Library of D. V. Ul’ianinskii, vol. 2, 1912; and articles in encyclopedias). An outstanding role in the development of this type of bibliography was played by B. S. Bodnarskii, whose lists entitled Bibliography of Russian Bibliographies were published in the journal Bibliograficheskie izvestiia (Bibliographical News; 1913–25, 1929; published separately in four issues during the years 1918—30). This was the first current index of bibliographical materials in the world.

One of the most important events in bibliographical life at the beginning of the 20th century was the regularization of the state registration of published works by means of the weekly journal Knizhnaia letopis’ (Book Chronicle), created in 1907. This journal was published by the Central Administration on Press Affairs and was edited by A. D. Toropov. In May 1917, the Russian Book Chamber was established in Petrograd (its director was S. A. Vengerov).

Bibliography in the USSR. A new stage in the development of bibliography began after the October Revolution. During the first years of Soviet power V. I. Lenin several times indicated the importance of bibliography for the development of science and for the improvement of the national economy and the political and cultural level of the masses (his letter “ToGosizdat. Copy to the Book Chamber,” dated Apr. 28, 1921; the Foreword to I. I. Stepanov’s book Electrification of the RSFSR in Connection With the Transition Phase of World Economy, 1922; the article “On the Importance of Militant Materialism,” 1922; and others). Of special importance for the development of Soviet bibliography was the decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR, signed by V. I. Lenin on June 30, 1920, concerning the transfer of bibliographical affairs in the RSFSR to the People’s Commissariat of Education. This decree established the obligatory state registration of published works, which under the conditions of the Civil War had been disrupted and could not be assured by the former Book Chamber, which had been located in Petrograd. The decree also substantiated the necessity for the creation of a bibliographical service, organizations of bibliographical education, and a bibliographical press. On the basis of this decree a network of bibliographical institutions began to take shape. In 1920 the Russian Central Book Chamber was established in Moscow, the first director of which was B. S. Bodnarskii (since 1936 this institution has been known as the All-Union Book Chamber). During the following years book chambers came into being in the Union and in several autonomous republics. Following the inauguration of the journal Knizhnaia letopis’ in Moscow (1920), other “chronicles” began to be created, devoted to specific types of published works. The first Soviet critical bibliographical journals were organized: Kniga i revoliutsiia (The Book and Revolution), Pechat’ i revoliutsiia (Press and Revolution), Knigonosha (Book Carrier) (1923–26), and others. The bibliographical activity of libraries was also strengthened.

The training of bibliographers, begun as early as 1919 at higher library courses under the Public Library in Petrograd (as well as later at other institutions), was further developed with the opening in 1930 of the Moscow Library Institute.

During the first years of Soviet power a struggle developed in the field of bibliography against objectivism and formalism, tendencies which neglected the ideological content of published works. In 1924 the First All-Russian Bibliographical Congress took place. However, in the strengthening of the ties between bibliography and the practical work of socialist construction, the Second Congress (1926) was essentially more important. N. K. Krupskaia took an active part in the work of this congress. In her speech she noted that in bibliography not only the registration of publications is important but also the disclosure of their contents from the communist point of view. One of the basic reports made at this congress was by the outstanding Soviet bibliographer L. N. Tropovskii. The most important bibliographers who had begun their work in the prerevolutionary period, continued their fruitful work. Among these were B. S. Bodnarskii, I. V. Vladislavlev, A. V. Mez’er, and A. G. Fomin.

Considerable development even during the years of the Civil War and especially during the restoration period was attained in the field of recommended bibliography, daily attention to which was paid by N. K. Krupskaia. In 1921 a special subsection was established under the Main Political Education Board of the People’s Commissariat of Education. The following journals of recommended bibliography began to be published: Biulleten’ knigi (Book Bulletin; 1922–23), Vestnik knigi (Book Herald; 1924–25), Chto chitat’ derevne (What the Countryside Should Read; 1925–28), and others. In the compilation of bibliographical manuals important Party leaders, publicists, and scholars took an active part (N. K. Krupskaia, V. V. Adoratskii, and K. A. Timiriazev). Of great importance for the development of recommended bibliography was the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP (Bolshevik) dated Dec. 28, 1928, “On Book Service for the Mass Reader,” which obligated the mass newspapers and journals to regularly print recommended lists of books being published and to supply current articles with indexes of literature. In order to strengthen the guidance of reading, the Institute of Recommended Bibliography was established in 1930 (later it was renamed the Bibliographical, and then the Critical-Bibliographical Institute; it existed until 1935). Extensive development was achieved by regional studies bibliography, which was greatly facilitated by the organization in 1921 of the Central Bureau of Regional Studies.

The 1920’s were marked by a number of significant beginnings in the field of scientific auxiliary bibliography. In the year 1920 the journal Nauchnotekhnicheskii vestnik (Scientific and Engineering Herald) published indexes of foreign literature on physics, heat engineering, electrical engineering, and chemistry. The Bureau of Foreign Science and Technology (BINT) published in 1921 An Abstract Index of Technical Literature. From 1922 to 1925 there was published the monthly Sistematicheskii ukazatel’ materialov po ekonomicheskim voprosam (Systematic Index of Material on Economic Questions), and from 1926 to 1930 five volumes of Leniniana were published; also published were indexes of literature on the history of the revolutionary movement, on agriculture, and on medicine. From 1928 to 1935 the Commission on the Publication of Indexes of Scientific Literature was operating. This commission had as its task the publication of abstract yearbooks of books and articles on all branches of knowledge, published in all the languages of the peoples of the USSR. This enormous task could not be completed at that time, but the valuable accumulated experience was later utilized.

During the 1930’s the state bibliographical registration was improved by institution of the means to include a greater number of books produced, by analytical treatment and better systematization of material, and by a qualitative improvement in bibliographical operations.

The decree of the Central Committee of the ACP (B) “On Publishing Operations,” dated Aug. 15, 1931, set the task of developing a system of bibliographical activity which would guarantee the authoritative and timely dissemination of information about books to broad circles of readers. In connection with this the bibliographical journals Kniga i proletarskaia revoliutsiia (The Book and the Proletarian Revolution) and Kniga stroiteliam sotsializma (The Book for the Builders of Socialism; 1932–35) came into being. Also broadened was the publication of recommended bibliographical aids, facilitated by the organization in 1936 of the Scientific Research Institute of Library Science and Recommended Bibliography (it existed until 1940). From 1936 the following journals began publication: Marksistkoleninskaia literatura (Marxist-Leninist Literature), Tekhnicheskaia kniga (The Engineering Book), Vestnik sel’skokhoziaistvennoi literatury (Herald of Agricultural Literature), Literaturnoe obozrenie (Literary Review), Chto chitat’ (What to Read), and others.

Major successes were achieved in the field of current scientific auxiliary bibliography. The journal Novosti tekhnicheskoi literatury (News of Technical Literature; six series, 1936–53) appeared, as well as bulletins of the Fundamental Library of Social Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on history, philosophy, world economy, and world politics. The institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR began to publish the Khimicheskii referativnyi zhurnal (Abstract Journal of Chemistry; 1938–41), Fizikomatematicheskii referativnyi zhurnal (Abstract Journal of Physics and Mathematics; 1939–41), and others. Also published were the following: A Handbook to the Second and Third Editions of the Works of V. I. Lenin (1933) and a number of works of retrospective character on the history of the revolutionary movement (the Decembrist uprising, the Revolution of 1905–07), Marxist-Leninist doctrine on the state and the law, and other subjects. Extensive development was attained by retrospective bibliography on technology, agriculture, mathematics, geology, and chemistry. The following major works on regional studies were published: Bibliography of the Far East Krai (1935) and Bibliography of Buriat-Mongolia (1939–46). In the development of regional studies bibliography and in the working out of its methodological principles, great service was rendered by N. V. Zdobnov. Founded in the year 1934 was the collection Soviet Bibliography, devoted to problems of the history, theory, and methods of bibliography.

In 1936, under the direction of N. K. Krupskaia, the All-Union Conference on the Theoretical Problems of Library Science and Bibliography was prepared and conducted.

The decree of the Central Committee of the ACP (B) “On Literary Criticism and Bibliography” (1940) noted the important sociopolitical significance of bibliography under conditions of building socialism and indicated the necessity of furnishing the entire system of institutions with bibliographic publications and methods of a militant and aggressive character, to attract to its development the authoritative scientific forces of the country, and to guarantee the mass nature of bibliography. This decree also delimited the functions of various institutions, including libraries, with respect to bibliographical work; the All-Union Book Chamber was assigned the task of carrying out the complete registration of literature published during the years of Soviet power.

Under the conditions of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the accomplishment of these tasks was held up, although even during the war years bibliographical work was intense. The registration of published works was not interrupted, and a considerable number of special manuals were published, mostly recommended bibliographies on military and patriotic topics.

After the end of the war bibliographical activity was greatly intensified. Bibliographical institutions were restored in republics which had suffered from the German fascist invaders, and a general system for publishing registration bibliographies was established. Work was conducted on the creation of a checklist of Russian books from the 18th through the 20th centuries and of indexes of Soviet periodical publications and the works published by the peoples of the USSR. An important event was the creation in 1952 of the All-Union Institute of Scientific and Engineering Information (VINITI), which began to publish a journal of abstracts (since 1953 on natural science and mathematics, since 1956 on engineering). Throughout the second half of the 1940’s and in the 1950’s a considerable number of major retrospective indexes of a scientific auxiliary character were published—subject and especially topical bibliographies, as well as indexes on the bibliography of bibliographies. During this period there was a great development of recommended bibliography (such as catalogs for raion, rural, and kolkhoz libraries). One of the characteristics of bibliography in the postwar period has been the growing involvement of republic, oblast, and krai libraries in the work of compiling indexes, for the most part relating to regional studies.

An important role in the development of bibliography has been played by the following decrees of the CPSU Central Committee: “On the Status and Measures for the Improvement of Library Work Throughout the Country” (1959), “On Measures for the Further Development of the Social Sciences and for Increasing Their Role in Communist Construction” (1967), and others, as well as by the resolutions of the USSR Council of Ministers on problems of scientific and engineering information (“On a General State System of Scientific and Engineering Information,” dated Nov. 29, 1966, and others).

At the end of the 1950’s and in the 1960’s bibliography was characterized by an especially rapid development in the national republics, by a strengthening of its role in scientific and technical information, by an increase in the quantity of major retrospective indexes (especially topical indexes) of a scientific auxiliary character, and by an improvement in the status of the bibliography of bibliographies.

A branch system has been formed in the USSR of institutions which concern themselves both with the creation of bibliographical materials and with reference-bibliographical and reference-informational service to readers. As of Jan. 1, 1970, this system included 17 republic book chambers (under the direction of the All-Union Book Chamber), VINITI, approximately 300 libraries that compile and publish bibliographical materials, and around 10,000 libraries that have reference-bibliographical sections. In the creation of bibliographical materials an active part is taken by scientific research institutions, primarily those of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Among the country’s library and bibliographical institutions there is a division of functions in the sphere of bibliographical work and reference-bibliographical operations. The All-Union Book Chamber is the scientific and methodological center for the republic book chambers as regards registration bibliography. The leading scientific research institution that coordinates the work of libraries of the various departments in compiling bibliographical manuals of a scientific auxiliary and recommended character, as well as reference-bibliographical service to readers, is the Lenin State Library of the USSR. The field of bibliography of bibliographies is under the direction of the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library; the bibliography of physics, mathematics, and the natural sciences is handled by the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; bibliography in other fields is dealt with by the State Public Scientific and Engineering Library of the USSR, the Institute of Scientific Information and the Fundamental Library on Social Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Central Scientific Agricultural Library, the Central Scientific Medical Library, and the K. D. Ushinskii State Scientific Library of Public Education of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR. In compiling joint bulletins and catalogs of foreign books and periodical publications, the foremost institution is the All-Union State Library of Foreign Literature. The functions of a coordinating bibliographical center for Siberia and the Far East are carried out by the State Public Scientific and Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Novosibirsk. In each Union republic there also exists a division of responsibilities among the library-bibliographical institutions for compiling manuals and for conducting reference-bibliographical work.

From 7,000 to 9,000 separate bibliographical aids are published annually in the USSR; these include bibliographical journals as well as lists of literature included in books and articles (the scope of the latter exceeds 30 titles each).

According to its various basic forms, bibliography is composed of a definite system of publications. The most complete one, which embraces all types of printed production throughout the country, is the system of publications pertaining to registration bibliography. It includes the following publications of the All-Union Book Chamber: Knizhnaia letopis’ (Book Chronicle), Letopis’ zhurnal’nikh statei (Chronicle of Periodical Articles), Letopis’ retsenzii (Chronicle of Reviews), Letopis’ gazetnykh statei (Chronicle of Newspaper Articles), Notnaia letopis’ (Musical Notation Chronicle; until 1967, known as Letopis’ musykal’noi literatury [Chronicle of Musical Literature]), Letopis’ pechatnykh proizvedenii izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva (Chronicle of the Printed Production of the Fine Arts; until 1967, Letopis’ izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva [Chronicle of the Fine Arts]), Kartograficheskaia letopis’ (Cartography Chronicle), and Letopis’ periodicheskikh izdanii SSSR (Chronicle of the Periodical Publications of the USSR), as well as Yearbook of the Books of the USSR and the yearbook Bibliography of Soviet Bibliographies. (In 1941 the volume of this last yearbook for 1939 was published; after an interruption it was continued in 1948 with the registration of material beginning from 1946.) The All-Union Book Chamber also compiles sets of printed cards for Russian books (since 1927), articles and book reviews (since 1949), articles and documentary materials from the central newspapers (from 1956), and authors’ abstracts of dissertations (from 1954). The system of publications of a registration character, including printed cards, also exists in the republics.

According to its designated purpose the registration bibliography also includes materials devoted to the foreign printed production imported into the USSR. The most important of these are issued by the All-Union State Library of Foreign Literature (Svodnyi biulleten’ novykh inostrannykh knig, postupivshikh ν biblioteki SSSR [Union Bulletin of New Foreign Books Accessioned by Libraries of the USSR], since 1949 and Svodnyi katalog inostrannykh nauchnykh zhurnalov, postupivshikh ν bibliotek; SSSR: estestvennye nauki, meditsina, sel’skoe khoziaistvo, tekhnika [Union Catalog of Foreign Scientific Journals Accessioned by Libraries of the USSR: Natural Sciences, Medicine, Agriculture, Engineering], since 1950). Published since 1957 has been the multiseries critical bibliographical journal Novyeknigi za rubezhom (New Books From Abroad) on natural sciences and engineering, and since 1958 the bulletin Novye knigi za rubezhom po obshchestvennym naukam (New Books From Abroad on the Social Sciences). The bulletin of the All-Union Book Chamber Literatura i iskusstvo narodov SSSR i zarubezhnykh stran (Literature and Art of the Peoples of the USSR and Foreign Countries) is devoted to cultural relations between peoples.

In the system of publications of current scientific auxiliary character an exclusive place not only in the USSR but also throughout the world is occupied by the Journal of Abstracts of the VINUI; also of great bibliographical importance is VINITI’s Ekspress-informatsiia. Along with these there are many current subject publications of a more practical character, especially in engineering (for example, No vosti tekhnicheskoi literatury [News of Technical Literature] and others). Special types of technical literature are the subjects of the following publications: Izobreteniia, promyshlennye obraztsy, tovarnye znaki (Inventions, Industrial Models, Trademarks), Informatsionnyi ukazatel’ standartov (Information Index of Standards), Novye promyshlennye katalog (New Industrial Catalogs), and Algoritmy i programmy (Algorithms and Programs). Also regularly issued is the Spisok perevodov nauchnotekhnicheskoi literatury (List of Translations of Scientific and Technical Literature). A defined system of publications exists in the field of agriculture (the index Sel’ skokhoziastvennaia literatura SSSR [Agricultural Literature of the USSR], 1931–34 and since 1948, and others). In the sphere of the social sciences the most important publications are as follows: the bulletin K. Marks, F. Engel’s, V. I. Lenin of the Scientific Library of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the CPSU Central Committee; the large series (consisting of 24 titles) of bulletins published by the Institute of Scientific Information and the Fundamental Library for Social Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which ensures readers of complete information concerning Soviet literature on the humanities, as well as foreign literature on the humanities received by a number of the largest libraries in the country; and the quarterly index Literatura po pedagogicheskim naukam i narodnomu obrazovaniiu (Literature on the Pedagogical Sciences and on Public Education), prepared by the K. D. Ushinskii State Scientific Library of Public Education. To the subject journals and bulletins should be added yearbooks and continuing publications of a scientific auxiliary character, including Geologicheskaia literatura SSSR (Geological Literature of the USSR), N auchnomeditsinskaia literatura SSSR (Scientific Medical Literature of the USSR), Istoriia estestvoznaniia (History of the Natural Sciences), Istoriia tekhniki (History of Technology), Literatura o stranakh Azii i Afriki (Literature on Asian and African Countries), and others.

In the field of general retrospective bibliography a number of major works have been published, representing an extremely full checklist of Russian books up to the beginning of the 19th century; they include A Description of Publications Printed in the Cyrillic Alphabet: 1689-January 1725, A Description of Publications in Russian Secular Type: 1708-January 1725, and Union Catalog of Russian Books in Russian Secular Type of the XVIII Century: 1725–1800, in five volumes (cards have been assembled for the compilation of such a checklist for the period of the 19th and 20th centuries). A prominent place is occupied by the ten-volume reference work Periodical Press of the USSR: 1917–1949: Journals, Proceedings, and Bulletins (1955–63), which together with N. M. Lisovskii’s work Russian Periodical Press . . ., the index Bibliography of Periodical Publications in Russia: 1901–1916, and the bibliographical reference work prepared by 1970 and entitled Newspapers of the USSR: 1917–1960, constitutes a compilation of the periodical publications of the country for that entire period (with the exception of the period from January through November 1917). In the Union republics, Union bibliographical works have been compiled on publications covering the pre-October period as well as the Soviet period: for example, Azerbaijanian Book, Bibliographical Index of Armenian Old Printed Books: 1512–1800, Books in the Modern Armenian Language From the Beginning of Armenian Book Printing to 1850, Books of the Byelorussian SSR, Georgian Books, Books of Soviet Kazakhstan, Chronicle of Publications in the Lithuanian SSR, Periodical Publications of the Ukrainian SSR, and others.

Retrospective bibliography in each branch of knowledge numbers dozens of major works, many of which are in series (for example, Presentday Problems of Technology, from 1963, and others) or represent large compilations of literature (for example, Soviet Literary Scholarship and Criticism: Soviet Russian Literature—Books and Articles From 1917 to 1962, 1966). Besides the usual indexes of a retrospective character, during the last few years there has been quite a significant spread of literature guidebooks, as well as “seminars” in the field of literary scholarship.

In the total volume of the bibliographical production of the country the proportion of biobibliography has also been great. Numerous issues have been published of Materialy k biobibliografii uchenykh SSSR (Materials for a Biobibliography of Scholars of the USSR; since 1938, in subject series); and basic indexes devoted to the classics of fiction of the peoples of the USSR and foreign countries have been published. A special place in bibliography of a personal nature is occupied by reference editions concerning the works of K. Marx and F. Engels, as well as those of V. I. Lenin, for example, A Chronological Index to the Works of V. I. Lenin (parts 1–3, 1959–63), and the catalog The Library of V. I. Lenin in the Kremlin (1961).

A prominent place among bibliographical works is occupied by indexes of bibliography of bibliographies: these include General Bibliographies of Russian Books Printed in Russian Secular Type From 1708 to 1955 (2nd ed., 1956) by M. V. Sokurova, General Bibliographies of Russian Periodical Publications From 1703 to 1954 (1956) by M. V. Mashkova and M. V. Sokurova, and Russian Biographical and Biobibliographical Dictionaries (2nd ed., 1955) by I. M. Kaufman, as well as the major scholarly works History of Russian Bibliography to the Beginning of the XX Century (3rd ed., 1955) by N. V. Zdobnov, A History of Foreign Bibliography (1963) by K. R. Simon, General Bibliographies of Foreign Countries (1962) by G. G. Krichevskii, and Bibliography as an Aid to Scholarly Work (1958) by I. K. Kirpicheva. Many branches of knowledge are also encompassed by secondary bibliography.

Considerable development has been achieved by recommended bibliography. Mass information concerning new literature is carried on in the USSR in the pages of most newspapers and journals. It is also dealt with by special publications, such as the journal V mire knig (In the World of Books) and the newspaper Knizhnoe obozrenie (Book Review).

The revolution in science and technology has exerted an important influence on the forms of Soviet bibliography, its techniques and methods of operation. Electronic computers have begun to be used in compiling bibliographical indexes (VINITI, the State Public Scientific and Technical Library, the All-Union State Library of Foreign Literature). In order to inform people about books and periodical publications, radio and television broadcasts are utilized; information concerning published works is also transmitted from major libraries through the teletype system. For reproducing bibliographical aids, nontypographic kinds of copying techniques are being used more and more extensively. The types of indexes are becoming more varied in their form (for example, permutation indexes have made their appearance), and new materials for the recording and preservation of bibliographical information are being introduced (such as punch cards, microfilm, and magnetic tapes).

In the USSR a great deal of work is being conducted from the positions of Marxism-Leninism on the study of the problems of the history, theory, and methods of bibliography. A considerable number of monographs, collections, textbooks, and educational guides have been published. These problems are being systematically elucidated in the Uchenye zapiski (Scholarly Proceedings) and Trudy (Proceedings) of the most important libraries, institutes of culture, and especially in the pages of the collections Sovetskaia bibliografía (Soviet Bibliography) and Nauchnoteckhnicheskaia informatsiia (Scientific and Technical Information). In developing and strengthening Soviet bibliography, along with bibliographers such as B. S. Bodnarskii, N. V. Zdobnov, I. F. Masanov, E. I. Ryskin, K. R. Simon, L. N. Tropovskii, A.G. Fomin, E. I. Shamurin, A. D. Eikhengol’ts, and others, a large role has been played by such major scholars in the natural sciences as V. L. Komarov and V. A. Obruchev, as well as by such researchers in the field of the humanities as S. D. Balukhatyi, P. N. Berkov, and N. K. Piksanov.

Soviet bibliographers participate in the activity of the bibliographical commission of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and in the compilation of international bibliographical works (Index translationum [The Index of Translations], published by UNESCO since 1949) and of current indexes on historical and social sciences, agriculture, and other topics.


Bibliography in Europe and the USA. The origin of European bibliography dates back to the later period of antiquity. The first bibliographical works (for example The Book of Famous Men by Jerome of Stridon, fourth century) reflect the struggle of the Christian church with the pagan literature of the ancient world. During the Middle Ages the dominant type of bibliographical work was represented by biobibliographical dictionaries of church writers. Such a book was the first printed bibliographical work, The Book of Church Writers by Johann Tritheim (Liber de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, Basel, 1494).

The 16th century was marked by the considerable development of bibliography. Current bibliographical manuals came into being, known as “trade-fair catalogs” (Messkataloge), which were issued in Frankfurt am Main (1564–1749) and in Leipzig (1594–1860) twice a year in time for the spring and autumn trade fairs. There also appeared the first subject bibliographical reference works, Concerning Famous Writers on Medicine by S. Champier (De medicine clarus scriptoribus, 1506) and the Inventory of Books on Both Laws by I. Nevizzano (Inventarium librorum in utroque jure hactenus impressorum, 1552). The high point of European bibliography up to this time was the important book by the Swiss scholar K. Gesner, A Universal Library (Bibliotheca universalis, 1545–55), published in Zurich. This was an alphabetical enumeration of works by 4,500 to 5,000 authors who had written in Latin, Greek, and ancient Hebrew. In 1548, Gesner issued a systematic index to the Library, Twenty-one Books of Digests (Pandectarum sive partionum universalium libri XXI). Both these works earned their author the honorary title “father of bibliography.” During the second half of the 16th century there appeared works concerned with retrospective national bibliographies. Among these were the works of A. Maunsell in Britain, F. de la Croix du Maine and A. du Verdier in France, and A. F. Doni in Italy.

During the 17th century the word “bibliography” was first used as a title for the bibliographical reference work by L. Jacob, A Paris Bibliography (Bibliographia Parisina, vols. 1–5, 1645–51). Indexes to the contents of journals also began to appear. Through the work of the Dutch bookseller C. á Beughem during the 1680’s and 1690’s, bibliography acquired the character of a professional occupation.

In the 18th century bibliophile bibliography was predominant. The most important work of the period is still the ten-volume Instructive Bibliography by G. de Bure (Bibliographic instructive, Paris, 1763–82), in which were enumerated more than 6,000 books of value for bibliophiles. Together with this there was a great development of subject bibliography (for example, the works of J. A. Fabricius on the bibliography of philology, J. Lelong on the bibliography of the history of France, and A. Haller on the bibliography of medicine). The journal Typographical Annals (Annales typographiques, Paris, 1757–62) made the first attempt to conduct a current registration of international book production. During the years 1778–80 the first bibliographical index to dissertations was published, compiled by the Swedish scholar J. H. Liden (Catalogus disputationum Sueciae).

At the beginning of the 19th century there appeared the classical work by J. C. Brunet entitled A Manual for the Bookseller and the Booklover (Manuel du libraire et de l’amateur de livres, Paris, vols. 1–3, 1810, 5th ed., vols. 1–6, 1860–65). This work contains a competent characterization of rare and valuable books from the 15th to the 19th century; it was reprinted several times after the author’s death and became a kind of “bible” of its type for collectors. L. Hain’s reference work A Bibliographical Checklist of Books, Published From the Invention of Book Printing to the Year 1500 (Repertorium bibliographicum . . . , Stuttgart-Paris, 1826–38) perfected the description of incunabula and replaced all previous works in this field.

In France the weekly Bibliography of the French Empire began appearing in 1811; since 1814 it has been called the Bibliography of France (Bibliographic de la France). Publishing organs for the current registration of books appeared in Germany (1826), the Netherlands (1834), Great Britain (1837), Spain (1840), USA (1852), Sweden (1863), Italy (1867), Switzerland (1871), Belgium (1875), and Poland (1878). Initially they all had the form of alphabetical lists. The systematic distribution of material was first carried out in 1871 in General Bibliography for Germany (Allgemeine Bibliographic für Deutschland).

In the field of retrospective national bibliography the following works were outstanding: J. M. Quérrard’s Literary France (La France littéraire, Paris, 1827–39, covering French books for the period 1700–1826), K. Estreicher’s Polish Bibliography (Bibliografía polska, Kraków, 1872–1951, covering Polish books for the period 1455–1900), and C. Evans’ American Bibliography (Chicago, 1903–34, covering books published in the USA from 1639 through 1800). The most important retrospective indexes of periodical publications were E. Hatin’s Historical and Critical Bibliography of the French Periodical Press (Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse périodique franqaise, Paris, 1866, an account of periodicals from 1631) and B. Lundstedt’s Periodical Literature of Sweden (Sveriges periodiska litteratur, Stockholm, 1895–1902, covering Swedish periodicals from 1645). The bibliography of official publications had its beginning with the publication in 1836 of Hansard’s catalog of British parliamentary reports.

The International Institute of Bibliography, founded in Brussels in 1895, worked out a detailed scheme for the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) based on M. Dewey’s decimal classification, and it undertook to compile an international bibliographical checklist—an exhaustive systematic card file of books and articles in all European languages from the 15th century on. The International Center for Zoological Bibliography, in the Concilium bibliographicum (Zurich, 1896–1931), was the first to implement current information concerning literature on printed cards, supplied by the indexes of the UDC.

In 1897 the German publisher F. Dietrich laid the foundation for the current registration of journal articles— Internationale Bibliographie der Zeitschriftenliteratur (Leipzig; since 1947, Osnabriick). This work contains an inventory of German journals from 1861 and foreign journals from 1911 up to the present time; articles are grouped according to their subjects.

In 1898 the firm of H. W. Wilson was founded in the USA (Minneapolis; since 1913, New York); it specialized in publishing current bibliographical manuals. Its first publication was the Cumulative Book Index (1898–1927), which began as a dictionary index of books published in the USA and Canada and later became an index of all books published throughout the world in English. It is constructed on the so-called cumulative principle (the absorption by later issues of material from the preceding issues). Also cumulative are the following current subject indexes published by the Wilson firm for journal articles: Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature (dating from 1900), the International Index to Periodicals (covering the period 1913–65), and others. Following the model of the Cumulative Book Index, current bibliographical indexes were established in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Italy, and France. The Royal Society (London), with the support of the academies of sciences of many countries, published a yearbook entitled International Catalog of Scientific Literature, (London, 1902–20), which in 17 series encompassed literature on the natural sciences from 1901 through 1914.

Characteristic of the 20th century is the enormous development of all types of bibliography, especially subject bibliography, and its continuous increasing specialization and differentiation. At the present time almost all branches of knowledge are treated by the yearbooks of international bibliographical reference works. Retrospective bibliographical works have attained huge dimensions (for example, the index on the history of Germany contains up to 150,000 titles). There has been a notable improvement in the bibliographical registration of dissertations, official publications, periodicals, articles from collections, and so on. The improvement of description in organs of general current bibliography is connected with the compact description and the generous use of abbreviations in retrospective subject bibliography. The utilization of duplicating machines has increased the possibilities for creating retrospective bibliographical works. Electronic computers have begun to be used for compiling current general bibliographies.

In the socialist countries of Europe, bibliography has been put in the service of the building of socialism. Its most important task is the complete registration of literature being published (especially that of journal articles) and the specialized bibliographical service of all social needs. Also characteristic is the rapid development of recommended bibliography. The creative assimilation of the experience of Soviet bibliographers has greatly facilitated the work of bibliographers in the socialist countries.

In Bulgaria bibliography was relatively well developed even before the establishment of the people’s power. Bulgarian Bibliography (Bulgarski knigopis), published since 1897, was an annual index of the entire country’s book production; in 1945 it began to appear quarterly, and since 1949 it has been issued on a monthly basis. In preparation is a retrospective index of Bulgarian books up to 1944. A major achievement is represented by B. Ivanchev’s work Bulgarian Periodical Press: 1844–1944 vols. 1–3, 1962–69). Until 1964 the organizational center of bibliography was the Elin Pelin Institute; then the center shifted to the Cyril and Methodius National Library.

In Hungary current national bibliography was established only in 1946. Its basic organ, Hungarian National Bibliography Magyar nemzeti bibliografía), is issued once every two weeks. In preparation are retrospective indexes of Hungarian books and periodical publications. The organizational center is the F. Szechenyi State Library.

In the German Democratic Republic (GDR) the principal organizational center for bibliography is the German Library (Leipzig), which since 1913 has been collecting books in German published throughout the world. Since 1946 it has renewed publication of the German National Bibliography (Deutsche national Bibliographie) in three series: series A, issued weekly, covering news of the book trade; series B, issued fortnightly, covering news other than that of the book trade; and since 1968 series C, issued monthly, listing dissertations (until that time registered in series B). The German Library also publishes the Annual Index of German Literature (Jahresverzeichnis des deutschen Schrifttums) and has continued to publish the long-standing German Index of Books (Deutsches Bücherverzeichnis), which has listed books since 1911 (by 1970 a five-year compilation for the period 1956–60 had been completed). All three publications encompass the book production of the GDR, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Switzerland, and (until the end of 1967) Austria. Also published is the Annual Index of Works of German Colleges (Jahresverzeichnis der deutschen Hochschulschriften), which lists dissertations of institutions of higher learning of the GDR and the FRG. As contrasted with the other socialist countries, the GDR does not conduct the registration of journal articles because of the publication in the FRG of the International Bibliography of Periodical Literature (Internationale Bibliographie der Zeitschriftenliteratur).

In Poland the basic weekly bibliographical organ, the Bibliographical Guide (Przewodnik bibliograficzny), was revived in 1946 (during the years 1928–39 it had been issued as the Official Index of Works Published in the Polish Republic—Urze, dowy wykaz druków . . .). Also begun was the reprinting of the revised retrospective index of Polish books of the 19th century (K. Estreicher, Bibliografía polska, 2nd ed., beginning in 1959). Now under preparation is the same kind of index for the period 1901–50. Characteristic for Poland is the vigorous development of subject bibliography and a great interest in the problems of the theory of bibliography. The organizational center of Polish bibliography is the Bibliographical Institute, which is attached to the National Library.

In Rumania the national bibliographical organ has been published only since 1952—the weekly Bibliography of the Socialist Republic of Rumania (Bibliografía Republicii Socialiste Romania). In the planning stage is a New Rumanian Bibliography, which is to list Rumanian books for the period 1831–1944. It will be a continuation of the Old Rumanian Bibliography by J. Bianu and N. Hodoş (1903–44). The major achievement of Rumanian bibliography is the Analytical Bibliography of Rumanian Journals (Bibliografia analítica a periodicelor româneşti, vol. 1—1790–1850, 1966–67). Until 1956 the organizational center of bibliography was the Book Chamber; later the center was moved to the Central State Library.

In Czechoslovakia two systems of bibliographical publications came into being—separate systems for the Czechs and for the Slovaks. The Bibliographical Catalog of the Czechoslovak SSR (Bibliograficky katalog ČSSR) is the weekly organ of national bibliography, published in Prague and in Martin (formerly in Bratislava). This publication is the only current, annotated index of books in the socialist countries. A great deal of work is being done in the field of the bibliography of Slovak periodicals (for example, the retrospective indexes by M. Potemra). The organizational centers of bibliography are the State Library of the Czech Socialist Republic in Prague and the State Library of the Slovak Republic in Martin.

In Yugoslavia since 1950 the Bibliographical Institute of the Federated Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia has published weekly the Bibliography of Yugoslavia (Bibliografija Jugoslavije); annual compilations are published by the individual republics, for example, the Bibliography of Books Published in the People’s Republic of Croatia (Bibliografija knjiga tiskanih u Narodnoj Republici Hrvatskoj) and the Slovenian Bibliography (Slovenska bibliografija). In the field of retrospective bibliography the most important work is the Serbian Bibliography of the 18th century (1964) by G. Mikhailovich. Along with the above-mentioned institute, organizational centers for bibliography are located in the national libraries of the various republics.

World bibliography is developing under conditions of ever-widening international cooperation. In 1950, UNESCO conducted an international conference on improving bibliographical service. It subsidizes a number of international publications concerned with subject bibliography, and it provides cooperation to developing countries in the establishment of their own national bibliographies. Under UNESCO the International Advisory Committee on Bibliography functioned from 1957 to 1966; it then joined the similar International Advisory Committee on Documentation. In 1964 the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) established the permanent Committee on Bibliography.


Lenin, V. I. “Retsenziia: N. A. Rubakin, Sredi knig, vol. 2.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25.
Lenin, V. I. “Karl Marx.” Ibid., vol. 26, pp. 82–93 (references to the article).
Krupskaia, N. K. O bibliotechnom dele. Moscow, 1957.
Sovetskaia bibliografiia: Sbornik statei. Moscow, 1960.
Fonotov, G. P. V. I. Lenin o bibliografii. Moscow, 1962.
Simon, K. R. Bibliografiia (Osnovnye poniatiia i terminy). Moscow, 1968.
Masanov, Iu. I. Teoriia i praktika bibliografii: Ukazatel’ literatury, 1917–1958. Moscow, 1960.
Bibliografiia: Obshchii kurs. Edited by M. A. Briskman and A. D. Eikhengol’ts. Moscow, 1969.
Briskman, M. A., and M. P. Bronshtein. Sostavlenie bibliograficheskikh posobii. Moscow, 1964.
Zdobnov, N. V. Istoriia russkoi bibliografii do nachala XX v., 3rd ed. Moscow, 1955.
Mashkova, M. V. Istoriia russkoi bibliografii nachala XX v. (do oktiabria 1917). Moscow, 1969.
Reiser, S. A. Khrestomatiia po russkoi bibliografii s XI v. po 1917. Moscow, 1956.
Berkov, P. N. Bibliograficheskaia evristika. Moscow, 1960.
Simon, K. R. Istoriia inostrannoi bibliografii. Moscow, 1963.
Domay, F. Formenlehre der bibliographischen Ermittlung. Stuttgart, 1968.
Malclés, L. N. Les sources du travail bibliographique, vols. 1–3. Geneva-Lille-Paris, 1950–58.
Trenkov, Khr. Spetsialna bibliografiia: Teoriia, Organizatsiia, Metodika. Sophia, 1958.


References in periodicals archive ?
John's bibliographical researches gives poignancy to George Harris Healey's catalogue of The Cornell Wordsworth Collection (1957), a work that has stood for over 50 years as the most trustworthy and most complete of the Wordsworth bibliographies.
This difference in the increased quantity of bibliographical references in Gray as compared to de Lerma does not detract from the importance and value of the earlier work.
Clearly the authors have remained engaged with the considerable problems of preparing a succinct and authoritative introduction to bibliographical and textual matters, and have been alert to the varying needs of revision among the topics they examine.
Bibliographical research is an arduous and time-consuming task (Magarey, 2001; Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Bachrach, & Podsakoff, 2005; Tahai & Meyer, 1999).
Moreover, he includes a well organized bibliographical essay but not endnotes, which makes it difficult to determine the source of many of the ideas and direct quotes.
The fact-checkers and the proofreaders ought to have been allowed one last look, too: the portrait of Shelley by Severn that adorns the cover of volume one appears in reverse in the entry under 'Shelley'; among other minor irritations I noticed that Balzac's Lost Illusions is once rendered as Lest Illusions; and a bibliographical entry under 'Soane' gives its author's name as Dean Ptolemy, rather than Ptolemy Dean.
Excerpted from the writings of Levi Coffin, a Quaker activist living in Newport, Indiana, and of William Still, a free black who headed the Vigilance Committee in antebellum Philadelphia, this book is valuable not only for its contents but also for its introduction and its bibliographical notes.
The second volume is the exhibition catalogue properly said, with descriptions of manuscripts and printed books exposed, and short factual and bibliographical accounts about authors and works, stressing their role in the hermetic tradition as well as in other intellectual currents inspired by it.
In the listed bibliographical references related to stability, and in particular in [1], that topic is correctly treated.
A number of new explanatory headings have been added; much of the bibliographical information has been separated from the expository prose, where in the first edition it often sat in clotted, distracting parentheses; and the index has been expanded, though even further expansion might have been useful.
Four pages of bibliographical notes and a listing of paintings add bits of useful information are included.

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