However, the variability in the crown structure (number of cusps and angles between the lateral cusps), as well as some variability in the base (position of the basal canal and possibly base curvature), suggest that Karksiodus dentition displayed weakly developed heterodonty in which the bicuspid
, tricuspid and multicuspid teeth were located in different positions on the jaws.
North Northumberland coroner, Tony Brown, recorded a narrative verdict, saying "post-mortem examination established that Dr Fletcher's death may have been due to natural causes, as a result of a bicuspid
aortic valve, barotrauma due to rapid though controlled ascent to the surface, or a combination of these".
section]) Case-patients: aortic valve defects, 10 (no bicuspid
valves); mitral valve defects, 9 (no prolapse); tricuspid valve defects, 4.
As part of the 2011 TAD Awareness Campaign, the Bicuspid
Aortic Foundation Blog features a series of articles about those with TAD.
Central tooth of radula narrow, bearing roundish, outwardly curved blade, first lateral tooth equally narrow, with outwardly curved blade, major lateral with bicuspid
head, denticles pointed of the same size, minute granulations on upper surface of cusps (Fig.
An echocardiography examination revealed a bicuspid
aortic valve, but no other cardiac abnormality.
Teeth in about 5 rows; 7 teeth along middle, about 17 along posterior margin, but at least one tooth missing; teeth compressed, along margins and anteriorly slender, unicuspid; mediad and caudad slightly coarser and longer, bicuspid
, with strong posterior, antrorse cusp, and minor anterior blunt or pointed cusp subdistally.
or Agardh angulate; leaves retroflex and perpendicular to branches; simple axillary or terminal receptacles; distributed only in the northern hemisphere.
The left atrioventricular (AV) valve is thin, bicuspid
, and membranous, whereas the right AV valve is a simple muscular flap devoid of chordae tendinae.
Intraorally there was buccal and lingual expansion of the area of the left first mandibular molar and the left second mandibular bicuspid
A diagnosis of RHD was made by echo-doppler if one or more of the following were present: a) Mitral stenosis; b) Mitral regurgitation (MR) and / or aortic regurgitation (AR) with regurgitation jet length of more than 2 cm in at least two echo planes, along with abnormal valve morphology (a bicuspid
aortic valve to be excluded in cases with AR); c) MR and / or AR with regurgitant jet length of 1 -2 cm, and abnormal valve morphology, in the presence of a history suggestive of rheumatic fever.
New coverage includes genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease; bicuspid
aortic valve disease; and ischemic mitral regurgitation.