biogenesis

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biogenesis

the principle that a living organism must originate from a parent organism similar to itself

Biogenesis

 

theories denying the appearance of life on earth as the result of the origin of living organisms from nonliving matter. The basis of the concept of biogenesis lies in the contrast between the living and the nonliving and in the idea of the eternalness of life. Proponents of biogenesis assumed that the embryos of living organisms were carried to the earth from other, older celestial bodies—the theory of panspermia. This theory was supported by the German chemist J. von Liebig, the physicist and physiologist H. Helmholtz, the Swedish chemist S. A. Arrhenius, and others who opposed the theory of panspermia to the notion that was prevalent in the mid-19th century of the spontaneous generation of complex animals (worms, flies, and others) from spoiled meat, dirt, and such. The authors of the theory of biogenesis argued that the transfer of embryos was theoretically possible, since given the absence of oxygen and given the low temperature of cosmic space they could remain in a state of anabiosis. However, it was later ascertained that cosmic rays exert a destructive effect even on extremely hardy bacterial spores. F. Engels pointed out the mistaken nature of the theory; he felt that the notion of the hardiness of the life-bearing material (protein) required by the theory of biogenesis contradicted the data on its chemical properties and that the notion of the eternalness of the primal carriers of life was incompatible with the historical outlook on living nature (see Dialektika prirody, 1969, pp. 263–64).

REFERENCE

Oparin, A. I. Zhizn’, ee priroda, proiskhozhdenie i razvitie, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.

L. IA. BLIAKHER

biogenesis

[¦bī·ō′jen·ə·səs]
(biology)
Development of a living organism from a similar living organism.
References in periodicals archive ?
Conceptualizing all ADP alive at any particular time to be literally connected by shared Ka horizontally one to the other or breadthways may help in understanding the idea of a biogenetically based impetus for a collective human relations orientation discussed above.
In doing so, scientists can begin to map how these neurochemicals, which are within the phylogenetic chain, biogenetically emerged and gave rise to the behavioral propensity of pair-bonding emotions in brain structures so as to predispose those species to subsequent nurturing behaviors.
To date, only one biogenetically engineered food, the Flavr-Savr tomato, has been certified as marketable by the Food and Drug Administration.
Its closeness to the medical system may be due to a shared concept of alcoholism as a biogenetically caused disease (see Spinatsch, 1988).
Biogenetically engineered products for agricultural, pharmaceutical, medical and other commercial applications are the new world order "gold mines," and they are the new reasons why transnational corporations want access to lands and natural resources - and even to human genes.
When I'm asked to imagine the artistic potential of a material such as amber, or even its rock-candy substitute copal, it's not Frederick, Peter the Great, or 18th-century palace decoration that come to mind, but the material that preserved the DNA from which dinosaurs were biogenetically engineered in the movie Jurassic Park, 1993.
There is, on the one hand, the still prevalent, ill-informed and substantially racist argument that African-Americans are biogenetically different, distinct and uniquely endowed with some presumed gene-based, race-linked capacity for sports achievement.
But their curiosity leads to horrific death and destruction as they inadvertently unleash the most terrifying weapon the world has every known: a massive, biogenetically enhanced python with lightning-fast reflexes and a voracious appetite for human flesh.
Though these biogenetically based constructs as applied in the centered African literature may appear to be nomina nuda in Western-based personology, the slight familiarity of the last one--to wit, "[t]he collective is that part of the human mind which contains the mental records of one's ancestors and is that body of knowledge developed by our ancestors and accumulated" (King, 1990, 20)--should be sufficient enough to inspire going forward.