Biostratigraphy

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biostratigraphy

[¦bī·ō·strə′tig·rə·fē]
(paleontology)
A part of paleontology concerned with the study of the conditions and deposition order of sedimentary rocks.

Biostratigraphy

 

a branch of stratigraphy which studies the distribution of fossil remains of organisms in sedimentary deposits with the object of determining the relative age and the correlations between layers of the same age in different territories. The task of biostratigraphy is the elaboration of scales of the relative age of layers (in various degrees of detail and of various scopes, but in zonal layers in particular). The succession of biostratigraphic zones reflects the change in geological cross section of fossil remains from a group of extinct organisms of different taxonomic classes or their systems. Of special importance in the differentiation of zones, and above all of biozones, are groups of extinct organisms that had relatively short life-spans but that attained widespread distribution, significant abundance, and variety (for example, nummulites, graptolites, and dinosaurs). Zones are frequently based on stages in the evolution of certain rapidly changing groups of extinct organisms (for example, corals of the subclass Rugosa). The study of the remains of ancient microscopic organisms (micropaleontology), the quantity of which can be extremely large even in small specimens (for example, from deep chinks), is important for the goals of biostratigraphy. Remnants of planktonic organisms (foraminifers, algae, and others) that were carried for great distances by currents allow zones of great territorial expanse to be distinguished. Fossil remains of plant spores and pollen, which were carried for great distances by the wind, are important for correlating deposits of maritime or continental origin that are of the same age. Biostratigraphy makes broad use of the methods of paleoecology for reconstructing the conditions under which ancient organisms existed in order to distinguish complexes of organisms of the same age living in different conditions from complexes of organism of different ages living in similar conditions.

REFERENCES

Menner, V. V. “Biostratigraficheskie osnovy sopostavleniia morskikh, lagunnykh i kontinental’nykh svit.” Tr. geologicheskogo instituta AN SSSR, 1962, issue 65.
Stratigraficheskaia klassifikalsiia, terminologiia i nomenklatura. Leningrad, 1965.
Stepanov, D. L. Printsipy i metody biostratigraficheskikh issledovanii. Leningrad, 1958.

R. L. MERKLIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The integration of outcrop paleoenvironmental and biostratigraphical data was used to establish sequence stratigraphic framework of the Lockhart Limestone.
Human impact in the Lake Malaren region, south-central Sweden during the Viking Age (AD 750-1050): a survey of biostratigraphical evidence, in U.
Biostratigraphical study of the Cretaceous Section--South Gaitanas Block (Upper Magdalena Valley Basin--Colombia), Internal report.
Precise time-correlation in the Ordovician can be achieved by biostratigraphical methods, particularly using graptolite, conodont and chitinozoan distribution (biozones).
Geographical, geological, biostratigraphical and palaeoecological details were already carefully published by MULLER (1983), FREES (1991) and BOHME (2001), The nearly complete skull treated here almost surely originates from the "Horizon of phosphorite nodules" ("Phosphoritknollen-Horizont") which lies immediately at the base of the Early Oligocene "Upper Boehlen Formation" ("Rupel Clay").
This gap in the bentonite record was probably caused by a break in sedimentation near the Llandovery--Wenlock boundary, which was also proposed on the basis of biostratigraphical evidence (Nestor & Nestor 2002, 2003).
Because the stratigraphic position of the type Middendorf Locality is uncertain, we attempted to extract palynomorphs for biostratigraphical analysis; however, none were recovered.
Biostratigraphical studies, based on the macrofossil faunas of the sedimentary strata, began around the turn of the century (e.
Pleistocene forest refuges in the Amazon: evaluation of the biostratigraphical, lithostratigraphical, and geomorphological data.
This is based on a biostratigraphical research work done jointly by the Geology Institute of Azerbaijan and British Petroleum.
He established a zonal biostratigraphical scheme for the Lower and Middle Devonian in the East Baltic and Belarus (Valiukevicius 1998), in which the Diplacanthus gravis interval Zone corresponds to both the Arukula and Burtnieki RSs.
Analyzing the distribution and calibrating the Ibero-Levantine brachiopod assemblages enable their use, not only for the palaeogeographical reconstructions, but also for biostratigraphical purposes as being achieved in all other peri-Iberian platforms (Goy et al.