biosynthesis

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biosynthesis

the formation of complex compounds from simple substances by living organisms

Biosynthesis

The synthesis of more complex molecules from simpler ones in cells by a series of reactions mediated by enzymes. The overall economy and survival of the cell is governed by the interplay between the energy gained from the breakdown of compounds and that supplied to biosynthetic reaction pathways for the synthesis of compounds having a functional role, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and enzymes. Biosynthetic pathways give rise to two distinct classes of metabolite, primary and secondary. Primary metabolites (DNA, RNA, fatty acids, α-amino acids, chlorophyll in green plants, and so forth) are essential to the metabolic functioning of the cells. Secondary metabolites (antibiotics, alkaloids, pheromones, and so forth) aid the functioning and survival of the whole organism more generally. Unlike primary metabolites, secondary metabolites are often unique to individual organisms or classes of organisms. See Enzyme, Metabolism

The selective pressures that drive evolution have ensured a diverse array of secondary metabolite structures. Secondary metabolites can be grouped to some extent by virtue of their origin from key biosynthetic pathways. It is often in the latter stages of these pathways that the structural diversity is introduced. All terpenes, for example, originate from the C5 (five-carbon) intermediate isopentenyl pyrophosphate via mevalonic acid. The mammalian steroids, such as cholesterol, derive from the C30 steroid lanosterol, which is constructed from six C5 units. Alternatively, C10 terpenes (for example, menthol from peppermint leaves) and C15 terpenes (for example, juvenile hormone III from the silk worm) are derived after the condensation of two and three C5 units, respectively, and then with further enzymatic customization in each case. See Cholesterol, Organic evolution, Steroid

Biosynthesis

 

the formation of organic substances from simpler compounds, occurring within living organisms or outside them under the action of biocatalysts—enzymes. Biosynthesis is part of the metabolic process of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Compounds rich in energy serve as the immediate source of energy for biosynthesis, but ultimately (for all organisms except bacteria, which themselves accomplish biosynthesis), that source is the energy of solar radiation accumulated by green plants. Every unicellular organism, as well as every cell of a multicellular organism, synthesizes the substances that constitute it. The type of biosynthesis accomplished in the cell is determined by the hereditary information “coded” in its genetic apparatus. Biosynthesis accomplished outside organisms is used widely as a method (sometimes the only possible one) for commercially obtaining biologically important substances—vitamins, certain hormones, antibiotics, amino acids, proteins, and other compounds.

S. E. SEVERIN

biosynthesis

[‚bī·ō′sin·thə·səs]
(biochemistry)
Production, by synthesis or degradation, of a chemical compound by a living organism.
References in periodicals archive ?
The maximum stimulation of rubber biosynthetic rate appears to be the result of a conformational change that greatly increases the binding affinity of the enzyme for the monomer, an effect most pronounced in H.
They engineered the tobacco carotenoid biosynthetic pathway to synthesize the marine carotenoid astaxanthin from naturally occurring carotene in the flower's organ that secretes nectar, turning yellow flowers to red.
The biosynthetic pathway that produces BH4 in Drosophila has been subjected to extensive genetic, biochemical and molecular analyses with an emphasis on the first and rate limiting enzyme, GTPCH (Mackay & O'Donnell 1983; Mackay et al.
A diagnosis of growth hormone "deficiency" suggests that a disease is present, and with the ready availability of biosynthetic GH, GH "deficiency" becomes a treatable disease.
These engineered cyanobacteria, which require a combination of only water, carbon dioxide, sunlight and nutrients to produce sucrose in a biosynthetic process at consistently high yields, are unique to us," she said.
Scope - Market size data for Tissue Engineered - Skin Substitutes market segments - Synthetic Skin Substitutes, Biosynthetic Skin Substitutes and Biologic Skin Substitutes.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers have succeeded in developing a biosynthetic polyphenol that improves cognitive function in mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
This research provides intriguing evidence that a sleep-dependent energy surge is needed to facilitate the restorative biosynthetic processes," said Robert Greene, MD, PhD, of the University of Texas Southwestern, a sleep expert who was unaffiliated with the study.
After all, biosynthetic organs will be needed to replace the original ones that fail after the first hundred years of life.
Some specific areas explored include highly efficient light-harvesting nano- and biomaterials, thylakoid protein phosphorylation and its impact on short- and long-term acclimation of photosynthesis, impact of root-zone temperature on photosynthetic efficiency of aeroponically grown temperate and subtropical vegetable crops in the tropics, photosynthesis of methane and hydrogen through catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide with water, synthetic models of photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, and a natural product biosynthetic gene cluster from cyanobacteria.
He said work is now on to develop transgenic rubber plants with enhanced rubber production by over-expressing the genes involved in the rubber biosynthetic pathway.
Every Guarda contains within i-powder a unique biosynthetic DNA code that is registered to the owner Outside Concepts was founded two years ago by managing director Liz Williams who invented the system as a child-protection device.