biosynthesis

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biosynthesis

the formation of complex compounds from simple substances by living organisms

Biosynthesis

The synthesis of more complex molecules from simpler ones in cells by a series of reactions mediated by enzymes. The overall economy and survival of the cell is governed by the interplay between the energy gained from the breakdown of compounds and that supplied to biosynthetic reaction pathways for the synthesis of compounds having a functional role, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and enzymes. Biosynthetic pathways give rise to two distinct classes of metabolite, primary and secondary. Primary metabolites (DNA, RNA, fatty acids, α-amino acids, chlorophyll in green plants, and so forth) are essential to the metabolic functioning of the cells. Secondary metabolites (antibiotics, alkaloids, pheromones, and so forth) aid the functioning and survival of the whole organism more generally. Unlike primary metabolites, secondary metabolites are often unique to individual organisms or classes of organisms. See Enzyme, Metabolism

The selective pressures that drive evolution have ensured a diverse array of secondary metabolite structures. Secondary metabolites can be grouped to some extent by virtue of their origin from key biosynthetic pathways. It is often in the latter stages of these pathways that the structural diversity is introduced. All terpenes, for example, originate from the C5 (five-carbon) intermediate isopentenyl pyrophosphate via mevalonic acid. The mammalian steroids, such as cholesterol, derive from the C30 steroid lanosterol, which is constructed from six C5 units. Alternatively, C10 terpenes (for example, menthol from peppermint leaves) and C15 terpenes (for example, juvenile hormone III from the silk worm) are derived after the condensation of two and three C5 units, respectively, and then with further enzymatic customization in each case. See Cholesterol, Organic evolution, Steroid

Biosynthesis

 

the formation of organic substances from simpler compounds, occurring within living organisms or outside them under the action of biocatalysts—enzymes. Biosynthesis is part of the metabolic process of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Compounds rich in energy serve as the immediate source of energy for biosynthesis, but ultimately (for all organisms except bacteria, which themselves accomplish biosynthesis), that source is the energy of solar radiation accumulated by green plants. Every unicellular organism, as well as every cell of a multicellular organism, synthesizes the substances that constitute it. The type of biosynthesis accomplished in the cell is determined by the hereditary information “coded” in its genetic apparatus. Biosynthesis accomplished outside organisms is used widely as a method (sometimes the only possible one) for commercially obtaining biologically important substances—vitamins, certain hormones, antibiotics, amino acids, proteins, and other compounds.

S. E. SEVERIN

biosynthesis

[‚bī·ō′sin·thə·səs]
(biochemistry)
Production, by synthesis or degradation, of a chemical compound by a living organism.
References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, it is unresolved whether atrial and ventricular myocytes possess the same biosynthetic capacity to glycosylate natriuretic precursor peptides.
Significant natural product biosynthetic potential of actinorhizal symbionts of the genus Frankia, as revealed by comparative genomic and proteomic analyses.
The biosynthetic corneas also became sensitive to touch and began producing normal tears to keep the eye oxygenated.
Additional efforts involve the mechanistic and structural characterization of some of these biosynthetic enzymes as well as their expression and activity in heterologous hosts.
Inserted through the skin in the groin and threaded to the heart, this biosynthetic valve expands and replaces the defective valve.
HyaCare, a biosynthetic hyaluronic acid, provides moisturizing properties for the skin and is suitable as an additive for moisturizing products for facial and body care, creams and lotions for aging skin and after-sun products.
A key feature of the technology - which uses a unique biosynthetic DNA tag which cannot be removed for days - is its ability to link a wrongdoer with the scene of the crime.
Tokyo, Japan, Dec 1, 2005 - (JCN) - The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) announced on November 30 that its Research Center for Glycoscience has discovered a quality control mechanism of biosynthetic protein in the cell, in collaboration with the University of Tsukuba.
Thus, direct optimization of the rubber biosynthetic pathway seems to present the most likely route to achieve significant gains in latex and rubber yield.
Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (Campbell, Australia), The Austrailian National University (Acton, Australia) and Biogemma SAS (Paris, France) have patente a nucleic acid sequence encoding an enzyme of the starch biosynthetic pathway in a cereal plant, wherein the enzyme is selected from the group consisting of starch branching enzyme I, starch branching enzyme II, starch soluble synthase I, and debranching enzyme, with the provisio that the enzyme is not soluble starch synthase I of rice, or starch branching enzyme I of rice or maize.
The science-based security system combines conventional alarm systems with a conspicuous biosynthetic substance called 'i-powder' that cannot be removed for days - and which carries a uniquely-traceable DNA code.