bipolar disorder

(redirected from bipolar illness)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

bipolar disorder,

formerly

manic-depressive disorder

or

manic-depression,

severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
..... Click the link for more information.
. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
..... Click the link for more information.
 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
(psychology)
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
References in periodicals archive ?
Underdiagnosis of bipolar illness remains widespread, and this may result in inappropriate treatment and subsequent deterioration of the condition.
Still, the data on potential behavioral toxicity, particularly with sodium valproate, should make one pause before reinstituting treatment with sodium valproate during the second and third trimester--and the data should raise the question of whether this is an appropriate medicine to be using at any point during pregnancy in women with bipolar illness.
205), may worsen some forms of bipolar illness, Wehr theorizes.
Neuroendocrinology of Bipolar Illness, Timothy Dinan and Michael Bauer
Jamison, a psychologist who has done a great deal of research and teaching in the area of bipolar illness, tells a compelling story of her coping with the various aspects of this disease.
Ann Rudy of Roslindale, who has bipolar illness and recently graduated from law school, told the committee that passage of the original bill in 2000 made her believe that "really, I matter.
Patients with bipolar I illness had significantly lower choline levels in the left caudate region of the brain, compared with patients with bipolar II illness and bipolar illness not otherwise specified (BP-NOS).
As the use of anticonvulsants to treat bipolar illness has grown over the past decade, so has the number of women successfully treated with these medications who have questions about whether they should discontinue these drugs before they attempt to conceive, or what to do if they are already pregnant.
We are again running the survey to locate families for a genetic study of bipolar illness.
A differential treatment response may pertain at the earliest stage of bipolar illness.