birefringence


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Related to birefringence: circular birefringence

Birefringence

The splitting which a wavefront experiences when a wave disturbance is propagated in an anisotropic material; also called double refraction. In anisotropic substances the velocity of a wave is a function of displacement direction. Although the term birefringence could apply to transverse elastic waves, it is usually applied only to electromagnetic waves.

In birefringent materials either the separation between neighboring atomic structural units is different in different directions, or the bonds tying such units together have different characteristics in different directions. Many crystalline materials, such as calcite, quartz, and topaz, are birefringent. Diamonds, on the other hand, are isotropic and have no special effect on polarized light of different orientations. Plastics composed of long-chain molecules become anisotropic when stretched or compressed. Solutions of long-chain molecules become birefringent when they flow. This first phenomenon is called photoelasticity; the second, streaming birefringence. See Crystal optics, Polarized light, Refraction of waves

birefringence

[‚bī·ri′frin·jəns]
(optics)
Splitting of a light beam into two components, which travel at different velocities, by a material.
For a light beam that has been split into two components by a material, the difference in the indices of refraction of the components within the material. Also known as double refraction.
References in periodicals archive ?
The predicted and measured residual gapwise distribution of the flow birefringence [DELTA][n.
Small values for the rotatory birefringence were obtained in our experiments.
The highest values of birefringence were observed for the higher molecular weight fibers (PP 3462).
The residual birefringence and interface distributions in a center-gated disk mold obtained by the sequential CIM were measured at various mold and melt temperatures and volume ratios of skin and core melts.
Ordinarily, a crystal with a cubic structure such as calcium fluoride does not exhibit birefringence in stress-free material because of its high symmetry.
139) Real time birefringence, true stress and true strain measurements on different crosslink density natural rubber vulcanizates.
If the sections are stained with the Shidham method, both crystals can be detected with their diagnostic birefringence.
The structural characterisation techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical microscopy (OM), mechanical characterisation, atomic absorption, luminescence, thermoluminescence, energy transfer, photorefractive effect, birefringence, photo catalysis, photoconductivity, birefringence, laser emission and so on.
Contributors who work in dentistry, preventive and restorative medicine, and prosthodontics around the world detail fluorescence, the platinum foil technique, adhesive resin cements for bonding, matching a zirconia crown and leucite-reinforced feldspathic veneer, zirconia abutments, the ultraconservative preparation and restoration of the anterior dentition, implant-supported prostheses, the internal live staining technique in anterior ceramic crown restorations, the use of experimental birefringence photography, the importance of gingival tissue in anterior esthetic rehabilitations, and other topics.
The 14 papers here describe such applications as evanescent field tapered fiber optic biosensor fabrication and applications in antibody detection and immobilization, Raman amplification for communication systems, Bragg gratings in high birefringence optical fibers, applications of hollow optical fibers in atom optics, physical modeling of ring lasers, optical power budgets, all-fiber devices for optical networks, optical differential phase shift keying, polymer optical fibers, dissipative solitons in polymer systems, pulses in averaged and dispersion-managed systems, gap solitons in hollow core photonic crystal fibers, multilength optical fiber lasers and semiconductor optical amplifier ring lasers, and the impact of aging on reliability in single-mode silica optical fibers.
It now can import up to four times as many Moldflow results files and can display optical birefringence, molding window, and design-of-experiments data.