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1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound



an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.


See references under and .



An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
A severe psychic injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
In fact, they reduce birth trauma and foetal distress and around 30 per cent of mums opt for an epidural to help them through long and painful labours.
Seven PSIs showed significant decreasing APCs during the time period: birth trauma injury to neonate (-17.
He was discharged from the hospital with a diagnosis of brachial plexus injury due to birth trauma.
Coroner Brian Farrell said there were other risk factors as well as the use of forceps resulting in birth trauma.
The Obama administration's top health policy official praised Seton for its low birth trauma rates.
The tragic case comes just ahead of National Birth Trauma Awareness Week, which starts tomorrow.
Sixty-two percent of all child deaths were attributed to live causes: pneumonia, prematurity and low birth weight, diarrheal diseases, neonatal infections, and birth as phyxia and birth trauma.
I will give you a simple example of a birth trauma that very few people recognize.
Karen has now decided to share her story to mark Birth Trauma Awareness Day.
The leading primary obstetric causes of perinatally related losses in singleton pregnancies Early Late neonatal Primary causes abortions Stillbirths deaths Infections 18 22 7 Spontaneous PTL 19 2 18 APH 11 25 4 IUGR 12 27 1 Fetal abnormality 6 13 8 Hypertensive disorders 11 4 9 Unexplained IUD 6 14 0 Intrapartum hypoxia 0 7 4 Maternal disease 3 5 1 Other 0 1 2 Birth trauma 0 3 0 Total 86 123 54 Late neonatal Primary causes deaths N (%) Infections 0 47 (17.
No neonatal deaths occurred in either group, and active treatment had no effect on the combination of deaths, birth trauma, hyperbilirubinaemia, hypoglycaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia (32.