Maria Habegger of the University of South Florida in Tampa, US and colleagues in the US and Germany examined bite forces
produced by 13 species of shark and their close relatives.
Fewer available prey, a larger proportion of prey approaching or exceeding the gape or bite force
limitations (increasing handling time), and satiation resulted in decreasing rates of predation over time.
By comparison, T-Rex could only manage a bite force
of around 3.
As a whole, the fracture strength in pulpotomized primary molar teeth with amalgam restorations was high (more than maximum bite force
in primary teeth), even in extensive 3-surface ones.
The researchers found that bite force
was correlated with body size, but showed surprisingly little correlation with tooth form, diet, jaw shape or jaw strength.
The study tested the bite force
of more than 206 children, aged three to five - the age group most likely to bite and chew foreign objects.
In each case the bite forces
increased as expected, but they did not increase to the level of the adult T.
If the availability of fruit provided the ecological opportunity that, in the presence of anatomical innovations that allowed eating the fruit, led to a significant increase in the birth of new species, then skull morphology should predict both diet and bite force
," they said.
The research that led to the new Greenies dental chew is based on in-depth biometric studies from the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, which analyzed canines' unique physiologies, including anatomical differences between dogs of different body weight, shape, skull shape and bite force
-- all factors that helped establish chewing patterns for each of the three major skull types.
Reconstructions of the skull of the carnivore, which became extinct almost five million years ago, showed researchers that it was well adapted to resist the forces involved in eating large prey and exerted the highest bite force
It was found that the largest great whites have a bite force
of up to 1.
These fearsome-looking cats - the biggest of which would have hunted very large prey, including buffaloes, horses and extinct giant ground sloths - had a relatively weak bite force
compared to their modern feline relatives, previous studies have revealed.