Over the course of my life I have experienced most of these, but one of them, the black-hole illusion, or black-hole approach as pilots sometimes call it, remained a mystery.
The black-hole approach illusion typically occurs when a landing is made over water or non-lighted terrain where the runway lights are the only source of light.
As mentioned earlier, night flying wasn't an issue with me so I didn't fret over a black-hole approach, but then something happened that got my attention.
I contacted the authors of some well-written articles on the black-hole approach phenomenon and asked if such an illusion could happen because of runway slope.
After all of this study, I finally understood why a black-hole approach can be so deceptive, but how can a pilot be fooled by this during the daylight hours?
The result is a non-stabilized, curved approach commonly known as a black-hole approach and depicted by the red dashed line.