black-hole approach

black-hole approach

black-hole approach
Approach with various lights on ground available for reference
black-hole approach
A black-hole approach: No other reference except for runway lights is available. The pilot tends to make an undershooting approach and may also feel that the runway is slightly tilted.
An approach to a runway on a dark night where the only lights visible are the runway edge lights. The pilot, under these conditions, thinks that the aircraft is higher than it is, resulting in an urge to fly a lower and flatter approach. Approach aids like the ILS (instrument landing system) and the VASI (visual approach slope indicator) can help resist this undesirable tendency.