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in electronics: see semiconductorsemiconductor,
solid material whose electrical conductivity at room temperature is between that of a conductor and that of an insulator (see conduction; insulation). At high temperatures its conductivity approaches that of a metal, and at low temperatures it acts as an insulator.
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pharmacological and other agents that when injected into the body quickly and temporarily stimulate its physical and nervous activity.

Doping has been known since ancient times when it was used by cultists, shamans, and warriors in Africa, India, ancient Greece, Rome, and elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century doping became widespread in a number of countries as a means of increasing the speed of race horses. In the 20th century doping began to be used in sports in some capitalist countries. Studies have been published on the search for and use of dope in medicine, veterinary medicine, and so forth.

Among the agents that can be used as dope (depending on the specific nature of the sport or other activity) are sympathomimetic amines (amphetamine, methylamphetamine, ephedrine), central nervous system stimulants and analeptics (strychnine, transaminum, indopanum, leptamine), narcotics and pain relievers (morphine and its derivatives, opium), general stimulants (preparations of ginseng, Schizandra chinensis, and Rhaponticum carthamoides, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), tranquilizers (Valium, Librium, Andaxin, Noxyronum), and ethyl alcohol in various mixtures.

The use of dope in sports makes conditions unequal, and it may do physical and mental harm to human beings. Many cases of poisoning of athletes are known abroad. Fatalities caused by taking dope have been recorded in international boxing and bicycling competitions. In some countries (for example, Belgium and Italy) where the use of dope is widespread, state laws forbidding it have been passed. Since the fight against dope is a matter of great moral, ethical, legal, and sports significance, the International Olympic Committee meeting in Lausanne on Dec. 20, 1967, decided to ban the use of dope in sports and to organize antidoping controls at international competitions. An athlete found using dope is disqualified.



The addition of impurities to a semiconductor to achieve a desired characteristic, as in producing an n-type or p-type material. Also known as semiconductor doping.
Coating the mold or mandrel with a substance which will prevent the molded plywood part from sticking to it and will facilitate removal.


Altering the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor material, such as silicon, by chemically combining it with foreign elements. It results in an excess of electrons (n-type) or a lack of electrons (p-type) in the silicon. See n-type silicon and silicon.
References in periodicals archive ?
And Dr Michael Ashenden, considered the foremost expert in blood doping and the man whose test caught Hamilton, last night told BBC Radio Five Live programme 'Peddlers - Cycling's Dirty Truth' that there were clear conflicts of interest.
In addition, significant progress was made in research on blood doping, including haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and blood transfusion, whereby an athlete receives compatible blood from a donor just prior to competition.
The Bayer Diagnostics' ADVIA(R) 120 Hematology System is outpacing this practice as part of the aggressive anti-doping protocol to thwart blood doping activities being implemented by major international sports federations such as the International Skating Union (ISU).
In the blood doping programme riders' blood was withdrawn, stored and re-injected to
It followed a week in which pre-race favourite Alexandre Vinokourov of Kazakhstan tested positive for blood doping and race leader Michael Rasmussen of Denmark was sacked by his Rabobank team for allegedly misleading them about his whereabouts leading up to the event.
With Alexandre Vinokourov starting as 2-1 favourite but out of contention at the time he was thrown out for blood doping, and Andreas Kloden and Andriy Kashechkin also contenders at the start, it is a massive act of generosity from the Irish firm, costing them around pounds 20,000.
Meanwhile, Jan Ullrich has been sacked by his T-Mobile team after being named in a blood doping scandal.
Commonly used blood testing parameters to identify athletes who are blood doping include hemoglobin, hematocrit, absolute and percentage reticulocyte (immature red blood cells) counts and ratios that can be used to sub-classify the results into ON (currently blood doping) and OFF (recently stopped blood doping).
In the cynical world of professional sport, - riddled as it is with blood doping, drug scandals and blatant cheating - the approach of our Special Olympians is refreshing and honest.
Or, in unscrupulous hands, could provide undetectable blood doping.
IOC Votes for New Tests to Determine Blood Doping In an effort to eliminate blood doping at the Sydney games, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has decided to use a new set of blood tests to detect EPO (erythropoietin) blood doping.
After the show, Armstrong was asked if his remarks about the French, who constantly accused him of blood doping or steroid use during his seven Tour de France victories, somehow went over the line.