blood substitute


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blood substitute,

substance that mimics the function of blood. Blood substitutes typically concentrate only on reproducing the function of hemoglobinhemoglobin
, respiratory protein found in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of all vertebrates and some invertebrates. A hemoglobin molecule is composed of a protein group, known as globin, and four heme groups, each associated with an iron atom.
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, the molecule that carries oxygen through the body, and do not attempt to replicate the blood's other functions. Blood donated by humans must be refrigerated, can be contaminated by such diseases as AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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 and hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
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, and is often in short supply. Designers of blood substitutes hope to eliminate these problems and develop genetically engineered or chemical products that will be tolerated by people of all blood types. Some blood substitutes under development use hemoglobin derived from human blood that is too old for use in blood transfusions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Using blood substitutes remains a matter of conscience," Sanderson added.
But perhaps the biggest problem with such hemoglobin-based blood substitutes is that the hemoglobin must be derived from blood itself.
Certain of the statements made in this news release are forward-looking such as those, among others, relating to the development of a blood substitute product and potential applications for the product.
located in Bothell, Washington, is a developer of proprietary drug delivery systems and blood substitute products.
A first-generation PFC blood substitute manufactured in Russia, Perftoran, is currently approved for use in Mexico.
but we believe that the decision to refocus is a sound one based on an assessment of the potential returns of our drug delivery and blood substitute opportunities versus the cost and limited opportunity of an echocardiography ultrasound contrast product," said Michael A.
The Company also is engaged in the research and development of blood substitute products for intravascular oxygen delivery.
On February 22, 2006, The Wall Street Journal reported that Northfield had "quietly shut down" and "didn't publicly disclose the results" of a study of PolyHeme in which 10 of 81 patients who received the blood substitute suffered heart attacks within 7 days, two of whom later died.
PolyHeme(TM) is the only blood substitute undergoing clinical trials that has been tested at large enough dosages to be considered a substitute for acute blood loss in trauma and surgical settings, according to Northfield.
Northfield engages in the research, development, testing, manufacture, marketing and distribution of hemoglobin-based blood substitute products.
The Company has under development a blood substitute and a liquid ventilation product, and an implantable glucose sensor.
Nasdaq: NFLD) to expand the number of patients in Phase III clinical trials of its blood substitute, PolyHeme.