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as instituted in the USSR in 1956, a general-education school—most commonly an eight-year school—with residential facilities where the children live while attending classes (but not on Sundays or holidays or during vacations, which they spend with their families or relatives).
The chief purpose of the boarding school is to make public education available to orphans and children from low-income families. In the Far North, such schools are open to all children who have no regular means of transportation to school. Children who are physically or mentally handicapped are raised and educated at special boarding schools. The cost of supporting boarding-school students is partly covered by the parents; orphans, children from low-income families, and children who are physically or mentally handicapped are maintained at state expense.
The boarding schools have a staff of educational workers in addition to instructors. The academic study program is supplemented by Pioneer and Komsomol activities, clubs, study groups, work and socially useful activities, games, and sports. The students’ activities are organized on a pedagogically and medically sound foundation—that is, the alternation of work and leisure and variation in the type of activity engaged in. In addition to classrooms, the boarding schools include production-work training shops, school garden plots, living quarters, sports facilities, and space for small-group activities.