xxt] are the horizontal normal strains of concrete and bonded tendon, respectively; [E.
As the bonded tendon has a much smaller mass compared to the concrete bridge, its kinetic energy can be neglected, and the kinetic energy of the bridge can be expressed by
cxj] are the vertical and horizontal force components caused by the tension increment of bonded tendon at the jth point during the vibration and can be expressed as
Caption: Figure 5: The half of bonded tendon layout (unit: mm).
The external potential energy of the bridge is caused by the damping force, the train-bridge interaction force, and the tensile force increment of bonded tendons during the vibration, so it can be divided into three parts as follows:
A bonded tendon
, however, is made of multiple post-tensioning strands and, by design, forms a continuous bond along its length with the surrounding concrete slab, beam, or girder.
Traditionally, prestressing of deflected pieces of wood has been carried out using bonded tendons.
One of the main problems arising from tensioning systems using bonded tendons is the delamination in the anchorage area due to the high stresses concentration [11, 12].
Besides the use of bonded tendons, other solutions have also been studied with unbonded tendons that are tensioned when the structural element is bearing loads.
which reduce labor costs as compared to bonded tendons
, which require a separate labor crew.