bonobo


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bonobo,

smaller of two species of chimpanzeechimpanzee,
an ape, genus Pan, of the equatorial forests of central and W Africa. The common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, lives N of the Congo River. Full-grown animals of this species are up to 5 ft (1.
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, genus Pan. Whereas the common chimpanzee, P. troglodytes, lives in forests across most of equatorial Africa, the bonobo, P. paniscus (sometimes called the pygmy chimpanzee), is found only in the Congo (Kinshasa) S of the Congo River. The bonobo has a more slender body build than the common chimpanzee, but there is considerable overlap in overall size (head-and-body length and weight) among individuals of the two species.

Bonobos share many behavioral traits with common chimpanzees; e.g., they tend to associate in groups, are day-active, build sleeping nests in trees, and eat mostly fruit and other vegetable matter. Their groups are usually larger than those of common chimpanzees, however, and often the females are closely bonded and tend to dominate males. Moreover, both males and females appear to use sexual contact as a means of communication and a way to ease tensions that might otherwise erupt into conflict, though there is evidence to suggest this is much more common in captive, rather than wild, bonobos. Bonobos are generally less violent than common chimpanzees, and there are fewer conflicts between neighboring bonobo communities. Both bonobos and common chimpanzees have been able to learn the meanings of many human words (although they cannot vocalize them), and they can be trained to communicate with humans by using sign language or symbol boards.

The bonobo is listed as an endangered species. The few thousand that remain in the wild are hunted by humans, and their habitat is being fragmented by encroaching human settlement, agriculture, and logging operations. Bonobos are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates, family Hominidae.

Bibliography

See study by F. de Waal (1997).

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A comprehensive study by Duke University has found that bonobos - our closest great ape cousin in the animal kingdom - are more attracted to the mean and unkind ones in the group.
That and other evidence suggests that bonobo DNA is an evolutionary disadvantage for chimps, evolutionary geneticist Marc de Manuel of Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona and colleagues report.
On the Twycross Zoo official Facebook page, a spokesman said: "We are saddened to announce that our male bonobo Kakowet collapsed today and we had to take the difficult decision to put him to sleep.
Bonobo and Friend in Concert A BONOBO nicknamed Bobo plays the oboe virtuoso to a LOBO, fellow hobo, while the Lobo in a solo with a mojo magic elbow plays a slow bow to Bonobo.
Bonobo, who has an inimitable melodic genius, will perform his first-ever ystanbul concert in nearly three years as part of the festival following his May 2011 ystanbul live gig.
With examples from the animal kingdom, particularly the bonobo, he cites altruism, empathy, and sex as the social glue that functions as the communal peacekeeper.
Using data from nest counts and remote sensing imagery, the research team found that the bonobo -- one of humankind's closest living relatives -- avoids areas of high human activity and forest fragmentation.
The results of the study demonstrate that human activities reduce the amount of effective bonobo habitat and will help us identify where to propose future protected areas for this great ape," lead author Dr.
The bass guitar slung over his shoulders only received light relief from the rapid fire abuse it was being subjected to when Bonobo multi-tasked and took a swipe at the scatty, melodic beats on the Macbook in front of him.
Compared with the more violent, male-dominated Chimpanzee culture, with which we also share genetic history, matriarchal bonobo society is a harmonious one.
La sociedad bonobo es bisexual y sus miembros se aparean libremente entre si.
Additional materials include an author interview, information about the Congo, and information about bonobos.