ABSTRACT Several restored oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) reefs in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, have experienced recent population crashes, potentially caused in part by clionid boring sponge infestation of the marl rock (a calcium carbonate-mud composite material) commonly used as a reef substrate and of the shells of oysters that colonize the marl reef foundation.
Given the high abundance of boring sponge in the reef-building marl at oyster-depleted reserves and the potential for boring sponges to affect oyster survival and reef integrity negatively, marl may not be the best material for continued reef restoration efforts based on its biological acceptability.
data) to represent a large portion of the estuarine salinity gradient, and included salinities that would likely affect oyster growth and survival, as well as abundance of clionid boring sponge (Grave 1904, Wells 1959, Wells 1961).
ABSTRACT The boring sponge Cliona celata poses an ongoing threat to the quality of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica cultured in Baie St-Simon, Shippagan, New Brunswick, Canada.
KEY WORDS: boring sponge, bioerosion, Cliona celata, Crassostrea virginiea, oyster culture
It has long been recognized that the boring sponge Cliona celata can cause significant economic losses to those involved in the harvesting of wild oyster populations or oyster farming (Korringa 1951, Warburton 1958b, Loosanoff 1965, Algarswami & Chellam 1976, Thomas 1979, Wesche et al.
You either lick off all the icing first, then munch unhappily on the boring sponge
, or open your mouth wider than the Channel Tunnel in a hopeless bid to fit it all in at once.
The limestone marl substrate used to build these reefs became colonized by boring sponge to the degree that bioerosion by sponge potentially compromised the suitability of the reefs for oysters.
Species of boring sponge in the genus Cliona are widespread bioeroders on all types of calcareous substrates (Wells 1959, Goreau & Hartman 1963, MacGeanchy 1977), and bioerosion by sponges can be severe enough to damage the structural integrity of calcareous reefs (Rutzler 1975).
The current study focused on potential negative effects of the presence of clionid sponges on reefs by measuring oyster demographic rates, including settlement, recruitment, growth, and mortality, in the presence and absence of boring sponge.
Rocky reef with bright yellow "boring" sponges - on these chalk reefs, several characteristic species which bore into the soft rock are found, including the large yellow boring sponge
I see the Cyclamen as a fruitcake -it's uniform quality all the way through, whichever way you cut it, unlike the majority of houses built at the moment, which are more like a sponge -iced at the front, but boring sponge
in the middle.