The ionization potential --how much energy it takes to strip an atom of its most weakly bound electron
--hints at how that atom's electrons are arranged.
Theory of bound electron
(hole) phonon scattering is used to explain the conductivity in samples having low doping of impurities.
The model calculates the sum of all processes (5) through (8) that lead to the ejection of a bound electron
Confirming results Researchers have been able to capitalize on a process called high harmonic generation to image the wave function of an N2 molecule's most weakly bound electron
When the impurity concentration is low, the electrons or holes are bound to the impurity atoms and the theory of bound electron
(hole)-phonon scattering is used to explain the phonon conductivity values of the samples with low doping.
A less tightly bound electron
orbiting farther away then falls into the more internal vacancy while the atom ejects a third, "Auger" electron.
A manganese atom also has a similar magnetic moment and a closed electronic shell of more tightly bound electrons
, and Khanna said that the new cluster could be regarded as a mimic of a manganese atom.
The bound electrons
are situated closer to the chlorine atom because of its higher electronegativity though they are not completely transferred to the chlorine atom as in sodium chloride.
The authors measured the Compton-recoil electron spectrum, first in the energy region of the so-called Compton profile and more recently in the regime of largest momentum transfer to the bound electrons
However, in a femtosecond-laser pulse, the photons are so densely crammed together that bound electrons
are likely to get hit by two or more photons at once.
Taking a unique approach, Rhodes and his collaborators discovered that intense ultraviolet light focused on a gas consisting of clusters of xenon atoms can cause the ejection of one or more tightly bound electrons
- normally found in orbits close to an atomic nucleus - while leaving behind an outer shell of weakly bound electrons
A physicist has now established that, in principle, the gravitational field of a compact, dense object such as a neutron star is strong enough to influence loosely bound electrons
in hydrogen atoms close to it.