All heuristic approaches do not differ significantly from each other in terms of measurement accuracy and constraint management at the lower bound level
the s-wave potential could have one more bound level
than the p-wave potential.
Meanwhile, in a secret memo that month, Ukraine advised the 156 other members of the World Trade Organization that it planned to raise maximum tariffs on some 350 imported goods over bound levels
, affecting some $5 billion in 2011 imports.
This has raised fears that even a substantial cut in trade-distorting support from bound levels
might not lead to very substantial reductions in actual subsidies.