Since their first description about 2 decades ago, acute hypotensive transfusion reactions have been closely linked with bradykinin
metabolites and the administration of ACE-Is.
In type 3 HAE, levels and activity of C1 inhibitor levels are normal, but a mutation coding for factor 12 leads to over-production of kallikrein and hence bradykinin
1998) Modulation of enhanced vascular permeability in tumors by a bradykinin
antagonist, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and a nitric oxide scavenger.
B2 receptor mediates NF-[kappa]B activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the Ras/Raf1/ERK pathway in human airway epithelial cells.
In a study by Tom, Dendorfer, De Vries, Saxena, and Danser (2002), the mechanism by which ACE inhibitors potentiate bradykinin
is investigated, which substantiates the claim that ACE inhibitors contribute to an accumulation of bradykinin
in plasma exchanges, and therefore, contribute to hypotension in patients.
The wide variety of drugs in development includes opioid receptor ligands, bradykinin
antagonists, newer COX inhibitors, glutamate receptor antagonists, substance P and neurokinin receptor antagonists, P2X2 neuron receptor antagonists and nitric oxide-based analgesics.
Kallikrein may be the most relevant target in HAE, as it is the key enzyme in the inflammatory cascade, in which it liberates bradykinin
, the intermediary of pain and swelling associated with HAE.
A combination of hesperidine methyl chalcone, dipeptide Val-Trp and tetrapeptide Pal-Gly-Gln-Pro-Arg targeted each of these issues by inhibiting bradykinin
metabolism and lowering Interleukin 6 levels.
Moreover, when capsaicin or another chemical called bradykinin
was applied to the hearts of rats, the animals' blood pressure and heart-nerve activity increased in a manner similar to that seen in heart attacks.
Changes caused by succussion on NMR patterns and bioassay of Bradykinin
triacetate (BKTA) succussions and dilutions.
By contrast, there is no known antibody to Bradykinin
, the equivalent chemical which is behind the common cold.
NEP works to control the levels of certain peptides, such as bradykinin
, that have been linked to joint inflammation found in arthritis patients.