While substance P and bradykinin
are involved in the first phase, histamine, 5-HT, prostaglandins and bradykinin
are involved in the second phase.
The edematogenic reaction was induced by bradykinin
(50 [micro]g/paw) injected in the subplantar region of the left hind paw of Wistar rats as described by Winter et al.
Carrageenan, serotonin, Substance P, Bradykinin
and 48/80 compound were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced angioedema is recognized as being mediated by bradykinin
, the metabolism of which is reduced by ACE inhibitors.
Current evidence suggests that bradykinin
is the cause of swelling in hereditary angioedema.
acetylcholine, histamine, thrombin, serotonin, ADP, bradykinin
, norepinephrine, substance P, and isoproterenol) can increase the synthesis and release of nitric oxide from the endothelium, although many of these same agonists (e.
In this experiment, the suppression of inflammation at the early phase can be contributed by histamine, serotonin and PG synthesis inhibition, while at the late phase by PG, especially bradykinin
and leukotrienes synthesis inhibition.
It may be that the substantial quinapril dose led to an increase in the release of bradykinin
, further promoting inflammation in a postsurgical population that had an ongoing highly active inflammatory process, with a resultant increase in ischemic events.
Reciprocal phosphorylation and regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase in response to bradykinin
15) Most of the effects of bradykinin
are mediated through the endothelial B2 kinin receptor.
Trauma can cause the release of vasoactive histamine and bradykinin
, which results in increased vascular permeability.
As a conclusion, hederasaponin-C, -E and -F, may exert their anti-inflammatory effects by blocking bradykinin
or other inflammation mediators.