Upadhyay was primarily interested in the ascetic model (sannyasa) of brahminic
32) As I have argued elsewhere, I think "the main Mahabharata" is concerned to provide ideological and narrative grounding for a brahminical conception of kingly rule and hierarchical society in the wake of the Mauryan empire and that government's cosmopolitanism and its insufficient recognition of the uniqueness of brahminic authority.
Hiltebeitel complained recently that many Western scholars credit ancient Indian poets with virtually all skills except writing, (44) but that lacuna has been well nurtured by the larger brahminic tradition itself (Hiltebeitel might argue writing has been deliberately "concealed" by the larger tradition), which, in ancient times, virtually never presents itself as a written tradition.
It is pertinent to underscore the long native roots of this hegemonic form of Brahminic
religious synthesization of the dominant pan-Indian identity -- something in place well before the advent of Western colonialism.
Birds occupy some interesting places in the imagination of many Sanskrit poets, perhaps because brahminic
culture accorded sabda such a privileged place in its experience of the world.
As to the time when this "process of Jainizing" began, Jaini suggests that it "could have begun only after the elevation of Krsna as an avatar of Visnu in the Brahminic
Epics and Puranas" (p.
Caraka's use of the concept of upadha links Ayurvedic medicine to pan-Indian philosophical conceptions, both Brahminic
and Buddhist, according to which the eradication of pain is obtained by the elimination of desire.