brain stem


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brain stem,

lower part of the brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. The upper segment of the human brain stem, the pons, contains nerve fibers that connect the two halves of the cerebellumcerebellum
, portion of the brain that coordinates movements of voluntary (skeletal) muscles. It contains about half of the brain's neurons, but these particular nerve cells are so small that the cerebellum accounts for only 10% of the brain's total weight.
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. It is vital in coordinating movements involving right and left sides of the body. Below the pons and continuous with the spinal cord is the medulla, which transmits ascending and descending nerve fibers between the spinal cord and the brain. The medulla also directly controls many involuntary muscular and glandular activities, including breathing, heart contraction, artery dilation, salivation, vomiting, and probably laughing. The nuclei of some of the nerves that originate in the brain are also located in the brain stem. Nerve fibers in the brain stem do not readily regenerate, hence injury may result in permanent loss of function. See also nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: A young brain stem cell (shown dividing, top) packs old proteins (red) into a daughter cell.
A pediatric case report of krait snakebite showing respiratory failure, areflexia, internal and external ophthalmoplegia, and loss of brain stem reflexes mimicking brain death was presented.
Of the total 22 deaths maximum number was due to multiple intraparenchymal hematomas with mass effect (40%) in which brain stem injury contributed to the most (44%).
Human brain stem cells produce the suitable environment naturally.
The most significant difference was discovered in the brain stem, where myelination was less in the smaller pig fetuses.
The study found that all the babies who died had abnormalities of four neuro-chemicals in the brain stem, located at the skull's base and connects the brain to the spinal cord.
The study found that all the babies who died had abnormalities of four neurochemicals in the brain stem, located at the skull's base and connects the brain to the spinal cord.
Major Finding: Balance testing helped to identify brain stem tumors in three children who presented with vertigo.
Following a scan, a tumour was found in her brain stem.
I think the trigger for this was the brain stem but it would only be picked up if something went wrong," said Dr Rogers.
ruled that the prosecution's case hinged on one huge hypothetical: The shaking was so violent it sheared parts of the brain stem, killing Etzel immediately.
2) Schiavo's responses were all reflexes mediated at the brain stem level or in her spinal cord.