brain stem


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brain stem,

lower part of the brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. The upper segment of the human brain stem, the pons, contains nerve fibers that connect the two halves of the cerebellumcerebellum
, portion of the brain that coordinates movements of voluntary (skeletal) muscles. It contains about half of the brain's neurons, but these particular nerve cells are so small that the cerebellum accounts for only 10% of the brain's total weight.
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. It is vital in coordinating movements involving right and left sides of the body. Below the pons and continuous with the spinal cord is the medulla, which transmits ascending and descending nerve fibers between the spinal cord and the brain. The medulla also directly controls many involuntary muscular and glandular activities, including breathing, heart contraction, artery dilation, salivation, vomiting, and probably laughing. The nuclei of some of the nerves that originate in the brain are also located in the brain stem. Nerve fibers in the brain stem do not readily regenerate, hence injury may result in permanent loss of function. See also nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Also, the amounts of several phospholipids in myelin were increased by creatine treatment, particularly in the brain stem, suggesting that improved myelination may contribute to the ability of the piglet to avoid the sow when necessary.
The researchers analysed the brain stems of 71 infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly over 11 years.
Brain stem stimulation therapy might be useful for temporary rehabilitation and as a permanent fix, much like a pacemaker, says Armin Curt of the University of Zurich's Balgrist University Hospital, who was not involved in the research.
Following a scan, a tumour was found in her brain stem.
Lou Filippo, a former prize-fighter who also spent more than 30 years as a California referee and judge, died Monday at the age of 83 of complications from a brain stem stroke he suffered the previous Tuesday.
There's some evidence that these processes may be the middle stages of the disease, and that Parkinson's begins in the lower brain stem or peripherally in the olfactory buds or the autonomic system of the gut or the heart.
Dr Rogers said that Mr Cooper was generally a fit and healthy man but he found a small benign tumour in the brain stem which probably caused the breathing problem which led to Mr Cooper snoring very heavily.
Palo Alto CA), which makes cancer therapy systems, won approval for its high-definition "multileaf" collimator that allows clinicians to deliver extremely precise treatment to tumors and other abnormalities near critical structures like the brain stem and spinal cord.
The content includes discussion and exploration of the skull; meninges; spaces between the coverings; the blood supply and drainage; the lobes of the cortex; basal ganglia and diencephalon; thalamus and hypothalamus; brain stem and cranial nerves; and the cerebellum.
2) Schiavo's responses were all reflexes mediated at the brain stem level or in her spinal cord.
Viral antigens are usually found within neurons and neuronal processes, predominantly in the brain stem and anterior horus (Figure, panel C).
Now, in an in vitro study using human brain stem cells, a team of German and Californian researchers shows how a specific PCB congener, PCB-118, can interrupt normal TH function and cause the premature differentiation of one type of brain cell [EHP 113:871-876].