brain-machine interface


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brain-machine interface

A physical connection between a human brain and an electronic device. Also called a "neural interface," "mind-machine interface" (MMI) or "brain-computer interface" (BCI), the brain-machine interface (BMI) is focused on managing the movement of prosthetic limbs and enabling vision for the blind. The first interfaces were prototyped with animals in the 1990s and humans later in the decade.

Non-Invasive and Invasive
Brain-machine interfaces may be non-invasive, with sensors on the head detecting brainwaves. As of 2012, the most precise functionality has been with sensors implanted in the brain tissue. The sensor detects the firing rate of a neuron, and the firing pattern can be mapped to the person's thoughts that in turn control specific robotic motions. Implantation is dangerous and controversial; experts predicting wireless, non-invasive systems will win out in the future.
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Before invasive technologies such as brain-machine interfaces and customized spinal cord stimulation arrays can become widely available, however, they will have to prove their mettle in long-term clinical trials involving large numbers of patients--trials that will likely cost millions of dollars.
The improvement seen from adding proprioception feedback may inform the next generation of brain-machine interface devices, said Hatsopoulos.
Taking brain-machine interfaces a step further, the system would be able to sense when a person is too hot or cold and adjust the heating in a room, said Yamauchi.
Non-invasive brain-machine interfaces based on electroencephalogram recordings have restored the communication skills of paralyzed patients.
EEG monitoring of the brain, which has a long, safe history for other applications, has been largely ignored by those working on brain-machine interfaces, because it was thought that the human skull blocked too much of the detailed information on brain activity needed to read thoughts about movement and turn those readings into movement commands for multi-functional high-degree of freedom prosthetics," said Contreras-Vidal.
This paper reports very exciting innovations in closed-loop decoding for brain-machine interfaces.
Neurodevice interfaces improve prosthetics and treatments: Advanced brain-machine interfaces (BMI) enable the severely handicapped to independently compose e-mails and operate a TV in their homes.
Gosset showed the new jobs that do not exist yet but will emerge very soon in fields such as 3D printing, nanotechnology, stem cells, brain-machine interfaces, energy and resource management.
These include big-energy networks in data centers, but also smaller-energy indoor communication networks and those in brain-machine interfaces," said Grover, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at CMU.
Our previous studies with brain-machine interfaces had convinced us that the rat brain was much more plastic than we had previously thought," said Miguel Nicolelis, M.
Plexon provides tools for basic brain and nervous system communication research, brain-machine interfaces, and neuroprosthetics for the growing neurotechnology industry.
Inference of hand movements from population activity in monkey and human sensorimotor cortex: Towards Brain-Machine Interfaces