breast implant


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breast implant,

saline- or silicone-filled prosthesis used after mastectomymastectomy
, surgical removal of breast tissue, usually done as treatment for breast cancer. There are many types of mastectomy. In general, the farther the cancer has spread, the more tissue is taken.
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 as a part of the breast reconstruction process or used cosmetically to augment small breasts. An implant consists of a fluid-filled, malleable pouch that is designed to mimic to the look and feel of natural breast tissue when inserted into a pocket created under the skin in a procedure called a mammoplasty.

After reports that leakage from silicone-filled implants might be causing autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupuslupus
, noninfectious chronic disease in which antibodies in an individual's immune system attack the body's own substances. In lupus, known medically as lupus erythematosus, antibodies are produced against the individual's own cells, causing tissue inflammation and cell damage.
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, arthritisarthritis,
painful inflammation of a joint or joints of the body, usually producing heat and redness. There are many kinds of arthritis. In its various forms, arthritis disables more people than any other chronic disorder.
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, scleroderma) in some women, the Food and Drug Administration in 1992 called for a moratorium on their use outside clinical trials. The ensuing scare resulted in the largest product liability settlement in U.S. history and the Chapter-11 bankruptcy of Dow Corning Corporation, one of the makers of the implants. Despite legal settlements in the billions of dollars, the claims against silicone-filled implants remain anecdotal; numerous scientific studies have found no link or only a weak equivocal link between the implants and disease. The use of silicone-filled implants was again approved by the FDA for reconstructive surgery in 1998 and for cosmetic surgery in 2006.

In 2010 silicone-filled implants manufactured by the French company Poly Implant Protheses (PIP) were banned after it was discovered that the firm had used industrial-grade, instead of medical-grade, silicone gel. Industrial-grade silicone has more contaminants, and French authorities advised (2011) that French women have the implants removed because they were believed to have a higher than normal incidence of rupture. Some countries adopted similar recommendations, while others did not; the implants had not been licensed for use in the United States. A 2012 British report on the PIP implants found that the gel used in them did not constitute a long-term health threat.

Bibliography

See M. Angell, Science on Trial (1996).

References in periodicals archive ?
Since 1997, (when ASAPS began collecting aesthetic surgical data), the number of women who have received breast implants in the United States is 5,701,317.
Late-term fluid accumulation around breast implants can occur for many reasons, including trauma, infection or malignancy.
This study investigated whether breast implants are associated with abnormal ECG recordings.
The boss of the French company which distributed the defective breast implants was sentenced to four years in prison for fraud.
The committee would help the health secretary in conducting the research, which should include a multi-disciplinary, clinical case-controlled study of women with breast implants, especially those who have had them for more than eight years.
And despite reports and conjectures showing adverse health impacts of breast implants, there are still women who consider having breast implants," the bill's authors noted.
PIP saline-filled breast implants were cleared by the FDA in 1996, based on the company's evidence that their device was "substantially equivalent" to another breast implant already on the market.
The FDA's "Update on the Safety of Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants" provides a clinical update on the two silicone gel-filled breast implants available in the United States.
It has also been frustrating to all of us that a breast implant registry has not been established, despite the concerted efforts made by women and successive private members bills calling for it.
There have been roughly 60 cases of ALCL in women with breast implants worldwide, according to the FDA.
According to a Dubai-based plastic surgeon, breast implants procedures are much in demand in the UAE.
You and your surgeon should work together to decide which breast implant will better fit your needs and expectations.